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Transcript of Career Counseling:
In summarizing this approach, Crites views its most important contribution to career counseling as heightened counselor sensitivity to the client's role in decision-making and recognition of how an occupational role can affect a person's self-concept. In reality, there is little in client-centered counseling specific to career decision-making and coping with work-related problems.
Evidence exists that identity problems are related to career choice issues. However, the appeal of psychodynamic career counseling depends on one's overall attraction to psychoanalytic theory, ego psychology, and the modern treatments associated with them. Important to note is Bordin's broad experience as a clinician and practicing therapist, in contrast to the rooting of many other approaches in the thought of educators and researchers. Clinically trained, practicing therapists, the majority of whom subscribe to some form of analytically-based therapy, may be interested in using this career counseling approach in treatment settings such as mental health centers, private practice, and others not traditionally involved directly with career problems.
In his review of career counseling, John Crites calls the developmental approach "the most comprehensive and coherent system of assisting clients with career problems which has yet been formulated." In terms of counseling process and objectives, the developmental approach is a composite of both client-centered and trait-and-factor techniques. The goals of counseling are essentially the general objectives of promoting career development. At each developmental stage, though, there may be several competencies that may be worked on consistent with career-development theory.
by: John Crites
Crites believes that a practical diagnosis answers the what and why of the client's problem in making a career decision. In generating the diagnosis, both test and interview information is useful.
Crites repeatedly emphasizes that the diagnosis in counseling determines the outcomes. For counseling, the purposeful from beginning to end, diagnosis and outcome must be related. Thus, development of the maturity necessary for career decisions often becomes an outcome.
To achieve desired outcomes, Crites recommends a broad repertoire of interviewing techniques. In the beginning of counseling, when problem background is being explored, reflective counselor responses seem in order. Crites sees the middle stage of counseling as the period in which counselor becomes more interpretive, relating present to past behavior. As actual problem resolution begins in the final stage of counseling, the technical aspects of trait-and-factor and behavioral counseling seem appropriate.
Crites acknowledges that test interpretation has a long tradition in career counseling, especially for predicting career satisfaction. However, he documents the declining interest in tests and their use, suggesting that a new approach as an important source of feedback but eliminate the confusion and error common in their past use.
Use of occupational information
Crites identifies the use of occupational information as the most underdeveloped method in career counseling. He claims that its value in making career decisions has been minimal mainly because occupational information is poorly integrated with other aspects of career counseling, even the use of self-information by the client.
In surveying the career counseling process generally, Crites identifies the three commonly recognized stages of problem-solving. These are:
The counselor/client team gathers background information regarding the problem.
The team clarifies and stages the problem.
It discusses and executes solutions.
Theory of Career Counseling
Crites may have overemphasized diagnosis, especially since that activity has moderate support at best from both research and practice. Reviewers criticize Crites' description of the counseling relationship and the parallels between career and personal development.
Future planning and the making of related decisions best represent the goals of trait-and-factor counseling. While often discussed in connection with client self-actualization or personal growth, the element of decision-making as an objective remains strong. An objective, intermediate to the decision, is increased self-understanding.
In particular, educational and career decisions provide direction for the counseling. Williamson (1950) often mentions an individual's social responsibility; the decisions made, if effective, not only are personally satisfying but also make a social contribution.
Bordin and Kopplin (1973) have developed a simplified version of a diagnostic system that categorize career-decision making. The synopsis omits elaboration as well as subcategories, which warrant separate investigation.
Synthetic difficulties. Situations in which insufficient cognitive review has occurred for the client to see career options clearly.
Identity problems. Cases in which self-perception is associated with the choice problem.
Gratification conflict. Instances in which approach/avoidance and approach/approach conflicts occur.
Change orientation. Cases in which self-dissatisfaction and the desire to change personally become portrayed as a career choice.
Overt pathology. Circumstances in which personal functioning is insufficient to allow career choices or even to do work.
Unclassified problems. Problems not fitting in the above categories.