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A guide to EFSVL in Oxfam
Transcript of A guide to EFSVL in Oxfam
Each platform will be made up of an Oxfam International Regional Director, (who will manage the Oxfam International Country Directors), Technical and Thematic Leads and programme support functions. This is a stepped process, but so far LAC has made the transition and is now under the care of one Oxfam Regional Director.
Many country offices will have a dedicated Humanitarian Team that responds to emergencies in the locations they are working, or if necessary, in other parts of the country. If there is a need, staff can be deployed by the region or the GHT in support of an emergency scale up.
The head office is usually based in the capital with a number of district or regional sub offices around the country. Teams will work either directly with communities, through partners or a combination of both.
Country teams will usually simultaneously work on disaster risk reduction, capacity building of partners and resilience to better prepare themselves, communities and / or governments for future emergency responses. The GHT will be able to support a number of identified Focus countries to achieve this.
The Humanitarian Programme Coordinator / Manager will manage the humanitarian response team, in close coordination with the existing country team and liaise with the region and GHT. The technical members of the team will liaise with their technical counterparts at regional and global level.
is to secure the rights of vulnerable people affected by humanitarian crises to determine their own food and nutrition security, pre and post crisis, by supporting their resilience to shocks and the protection and sustainability of their livelihoods
emerged from the EMMA and is a practical, step-by-step resource to guide market analysis practitioners and team leaders to conduct market assessments before emergencies happen. This early analysis helps practitioners and decision makers to anticipate how certain selected ‘critical’ markets will respond if and when a shock occurs. Undertaking market analysis as part of preparedness and contingency planning could significantly improve the readiness to respond to crises and can feed into early warning systems.
is based on the EMMA logic – and uses a very similar stepped approach. The PCMMA is particularly suited to slow onset or recurrent crises. In other words, contexts where crises are reasonably predictable.
isn't intended to replace the EMMA. Both analyses share the same approach, follow similar steps and produce similar market maps. The main differences in approach between the EMMA and the PCMMA are evident in the objectives and the timing of the assessment. The difference in timing has several implications – on the breadth of response, on findings and on monitoring
The EMMA is a guidance manual for relief agencies needing to understand market-systems in disaster zones. It enables smarter use of local economic capabilities, to improve humanitarian responses.
What is the EMMA toolkit designed for?
EMMA was designed specifically for sudden-onset emergencies. Parts of the EMMA can be used in other contexts, but such application cannot be correctly called an EMMA. The non sudden-onset emergency context to which EMMA is most readily adapted is for emergency preparation (see the next slide on the PCMMA).
When should an EMMA be started?
The EMMA is designed to be used for sudden-onset emergencies. The sooner an EMMA is started and completed, the better. Since EMMA is a ‘rough and ready’ snapshot, it’s accuracy, utility and value diminishes as time passes from a sudden-onset emergency. A general rule of thumb is to begin the EMMA within two weeks of a sudden-onset emergency and to publish the results (or at least give a briefing to stakeholders) within three to four weeks.
How long should the EMMA process take?
The length of an EMMA in the field depends on a number of factors, most notably: number of markets being assessed, geographic area to be covered, access and resources. Ideally, the entire EMMA process from arrival in-country to the publication of the report(s) should take two weeks.
The purpose of this tool is to obtain a good understanding of the emergency food security and livelihood situation, within the first few days or weeks after a rapid-onset disaster. The tool is independent of other multi-sectoral assessments and was designed to collect information specifically only on food security and livelihoods
This tool is particularly designed for:
humanitarian staff with no or limited technical skills, for example humanitarian program managers
food security and livelihoods technical staff with little experience of rapid-onset disasters in urban and rural contexts, for example staff usually involved in long-term livelihood programming
The training materials which have been developed alongside this tool can be used to rapidly train participants to confidently apply the ‘48-hour Assessment tool’ to assess the impact of a shock/hazard on an affected population’s food security and livelihoods.
Oxfam assessments vary according to the different contexts, the nature of the crisis (slow or rapid onset), and the timeframe. Given the nature of Oxfam’s programmes and the countries we work in, we not only seek to assess the situation following a crisis but to have sufficient information prior to a crisis developing to be properly prepared and improve the timeliness of our response. To do this Oxfam works with other actors in countries and regions to contribute to relevant early warning/ monitoring systems conducted by other actors.
When considering the type of assessment needed, a judgement call needs to be made based on the amount of existing information that is available, the amount of information that is needed to make the appropriate decisions for the response, taking into consideration the context and the amount of time available.
When an emergency happens Oxfam teams will carry out a rapid assessment in order to be able to make quick decisions as to the most appropriate first phase response. Once the first phase activities are up and running, deeper assessments will allow the teams to begin planning recovery activities. Ideally these assessments should be integrated to capture the needs of WASH, EFSVL, Shelter, Protection and Gender as well as to understand the Logistics, Finance and HR constraints and requirements.
Oxfam has recently developed a generic Rapid-onset Integrated Assessment which can be used in the first days of a disaster. It has been designed so that it can be used in most contexts so could just be used as it is or be adapted slightly if the context requires it. This assessment is available to use by digital data collection using Mobenzi.
is a key list of questions and issues that should be looked at in an assessment and during the first phase of an emergency
This includes a checklist on:
food access and availability
different livelihood groups
markets existence and functioning
impact on livelihood system
assessing possible future changes
external response so far
internal capacity for Oxfam to respond
Our vision is a just world without poverty. We want a world where people are valued and treated equally, enjoy their rights as full citizens, and can influence decisions affecting their lives.
Oxfam believes that all people living in poverty have the same rights, and works to help people exercise their rights.
Right to be heard – People claiming their right to a better life
Advancing Gender Justice
Saving lives, now and in the
Fair Sharing of
Financing for Development and Universal Essential Services
Oxfam works with partners and allies as equals and supports them in achieving their aims.
Our work is based on the belief that poverty is the result of the denial of basic human rights.
We believe that poverty is a global problem that requires a global solution.
Oxfam is an international confederation of 19 Organisations (affiliates) networked in more than 90 countries, as part of a global movement for change.
The Oxfam International Secretariat is based in Oxford, UK. The Secretariat runs advocacy offices in Addis Ababa, Brussels, Geneva, New York and Washington DC. The Secretariat oversees all the affiliates and brings them together to work more cohesively.
Oxfam is going through a process to transform itself into a more simple, globally balanced and influential organisation. This process, referred to as Oxfam 2020, aims to unite the different affiliate members of the Oxfam Confederation into a more coherent, single global body to ultimately form One Oxfam around the globe.
As part of this change process, the humanitarian departments of different Oxfam affiliates have been merged under one line management chain to create a single Global Humanitarian Team (GHT).
Made up of the combined human resources from each affiliate, the GHT is a 150 person team, including 85 dedicated surge capacity staff (HSPs), under one Oxfam International Humanitarian Director, Nigel Timmins.
The GHT will provide leadership and direction, set standards, develop programme policy, and represent Oxfam to the global humanitarian sector. It will support our country teams to build and maintain their capacity for emergency response, disaster risk reduction work, and resilience- building, while offering additional scale-up resources for lrge responses. The GHT will be a resource and knowledge hub encompassing the full range of Oxfam's humanitarian expertise in WASH, food security, protection, gender, capacity building and DRR.
Oxfam’s areas of humanitarian expertise lie in WASH and EFSVL and often in Shelter, where there is a large need and gap. Whilst Protection and Gender are always embedded throughout our programmes (mainstreamed), Oxfam will often carry out standalone Protection and Gender activities where appropriate.
The Rights in Crisis (RIC)Team will usually work to advocate and lobby governments, regional and international bodies and institutions to raise the voices of affected communities to highlight immediate concerns and ensure their involvement in longer term solutions.
Food Security = “
when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”
Sustainable Livelihoods =
A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base.” -
For an individual to be Food Secure, these 4 main aspects must be applicable at the same time (FAO):
Availability: this refers to the supply of food within a population and household through the production, distribution and exchange of food.
Access: this refers to the capacity of a household to get enough food to satisfy the nutritional needs of all its members.
Utilisation: this refers to how the food is distributed, prepared and absorbed at an individual level within a household.
Stability: this refers to the ability to obtain enough food all the time, so incorporates volatile issues such as price changes, crop failure, war and income patterns.
Oxfam works across a range of emergency contexts from natural catastrophes like earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, droughts and pests to man-made disasters such as civil war and international conflict to complex multi-causal crises like famine, price shocks and disease outbreaks.
Our EFSVL work takes place at all stages of the 'disaster cycle' - from preparation, to response, recovery and disaster mitigation.
Through its EFSVL work, in an emergency Oxfam aims to:
meet people’s immediate food and survival needs
contribute to the longer-term economic recovery of affected people
increase their resilience to reduce vulnerability to future shocks
Oxfam has set Minimum Standards for EFSVL capacity which should be in place to have effective Humanitarian Responses. These are:
• One EFSVL specialist at country-level
• Two strong EFSVL partners per country
• EFSVL preparedness measures in place in-country
• EFSVL component in the OCS (Oxfam Country Strategy)
• Country capacity through Oxfam and partners in
Logistics, Finance and HR
• Capacity assessments conducted regularly to assess
and monitor key EFSVL partners’ capacity
• Minimum Indicators for EFSVL program quality met
• DRR, gender, advocacy, LRRD and MEAL approach
integrated into EFSVL programming.
• Support to country provided by Oxfam HQ/regional
The EFSVL Program Quality Standards (PQS’s) outline current thinking and good practice in programme quality and set standards which have been agreed between affiliates
The Program Quality Standards are essential guidance for EFSVL staff and partners. All EFSVL staff members are expected to refer to and understand those Standards that are relevant to their current or anticipated program area.
The Program Quality Standards have been developed for the following key program areas :
Cash Transfer Programming
As one of the EFSVL objectives is to meet people’s immediate food and survival needs, EFSVL teams aim to improve access to food for those affected by the crisis.
If, after initial assessments, it is found that the markets are functioning sufficiently or partially, and there is a need for Oxfam to intervene, we can chose to support communities through one or a variety of these activities, depending on the particular context:
Cash grants to buy essential items
Cash vouchers to be redeemed at local traders
Cash for work
Grants to traders
If the market is not functioning at all, and there is an urgent need, Oxfam will distribute in-kind items directly to those in need.
As the other main objective of EFSVL teams is to contribute to the longer-term economic recovery of affected people and increase their resilience to future shocks, EFSVL teams also work to support communities to recover or enhance their livelihood options.
As with access to food the activity chosen will depend on the functioning of the market, and this could include one or a number of the following activities:
The GHT will lead and support the humanitarian programme of the whole Oxfam confederation which works in more than 70 countries. It has been designed to support the components of Oxfam’s humanitarian strategic plan, which are:
More effective crisis response, both through Oxfam’s own capacity and increasingly through the capacity of other organisations, partners and communities.
Reducing the risk of disasters and building the resilience of communities
Strengthening the institutional capacity of states to respond to crises
Supporting poor women and their organisations in emergency preparedness, risk reduction and response.
Influencing others and campaigning for the respect of the rights of communities who are at risk or affected by conflicts and disasters
If people are to survive disasters and recover from them, it is vital that they have access to sufficient food, and that they have the resources (income and other assets) to rebuild their livelihoods to ensure their future well being.
are to ensure that:
Oxfam continues to implement high quality EFSVL preparedness, response and recovery programmes
Oxfam's programmes work towards reducing vulnerability and building resilience.
Oxfam and partner staff have the capacity to deliver and influence quality and effective programming
Oxfam remains at the forefront and as a thought leader of innovative EFSVL programmes
Oxfam's EFSVL work contributes to Gender Justice, Women's rights and Protection
Cash grants to invest in business inputs and / or assets (could include seeds, tools, livestock, stock, buildings, machinery etc)
Cash vouchers to redeem with local traders for inputs and / or assets
Direct distribution of inputs and / or assets
Business and accounting training
Vocational / skills training
When looking specifically at EFSVL, Oxfam seeks to identify whether there is an increased risk of food insecurity and whether livelihoods are in danger. This is done by conducting assessments to understand the type, degree and extent of food insecurity, the impact of the crisis on livelihoods, to identify the most affected populations and to define the most appropriate response.
When men and women run the risk of food insecurity, and / or disruption to livelihoods, the decisions taken within the programme's framework are based on a proven understanding of:
a. the way in which they
have access to food and income, and
of the catastrophe on the access to current and future food and income, with the aim of finding the most appropriate intervention.
It is sufficient to give information on the four aspects below to be able to get a good idea of the food security situation in a region and to properly define the problem.
1. The causes of food and income insecurity:
Differentiating the chronic from the temporary; availability, accessibility or use; sources of food and sources of income; market and food prices; vulnerability; response capabilities.
2. The groups and their magnitude/dispersion:
The magnitude of food and income insecurity, as well as its spatial dispersion, its geographical scope and the number of affected people and how men, women, boys and girls are specifically affected.
measuring the severity of food and income insecurity: is it very serious, serious or normal in comparison with the normal situation?
4. The development of the situation over time:
the inevitability of a crisis or the length of a situation of food and income insecurity.
Alongside these run the fundamental support services of Logistics, Finance, HR, Administration, IT, Information & Knowledge management, MEAL and ICT in Programmes
In our programmes, Oxfam aims to be accountable to people living in poverty and the partners with whom we work. Accountability is the process through which an organisation balances the needs of stakeholders in its decision-making and activities, and delivers against this commitment.
Specifically, in regard to intended beneficiaries, this means making sure that women, men and children who are the target of our interventions are involved in planning, implementing and judging the effectiveness of projects.
The Humanitarian Accountability Partnership International’s (HAP) definition of accountability involves taking account of the needs, concerns, capacities, and disposition of affected parties, and explaining the meaning of, and reasons for, actions, non-actions and decisions. Accountability is therefore about the right to be heard, and the duty to respond
Oxfam will provide stakeholders with the information they require to make informed decisions and choices. In this way transparency is more than just a one way flow of information; it is an ongoing dialogue between an organisation and its stakeholders over information provisions. Specifically, Oxfam and its partner organisations shall make the following information publicly available to specified stakeholders through the more adapted means, channels and of course considering suitable language:
Organizational background, vision and mission
Project plan- objectives and timing of the projects, expected results and beneficiary selection criteria
Contact details for each project
Dates and locations of key events open to community participation
Basic reports on project progress including basic financial information (e.g- the price of units) - to be made available at agreed intervals.
Oxfam and its partner organisations shall promote beneficiaries participation in program decisions and seek their informed consent and feedback.
Specific attention should be paid to gender, age, disability and other vulnerability in order to ensure the definition of specific processes enabling a complete participation.
Oxfam staff shall establish and implement feedback-complaints handling procedures that are effective, accessible and safe for intended beneficiaries and communities, agency staff, project partners and other specified bodies.
Oxfam shall determine the competencies, attitudes and development needs of staff required to ensure quality and fulfillment of commitments and international standards including the Red Cross Code of Conduct
Oxfam makes its commitment to accountability explicit, as evidenced in country strategies, program proposals, staff inductions, partnership agreements; program implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
MEAL strategies and plans will ensure Oxfam capacity to be accountable and, at the same time, the former 4 dimensions should be embedded in the MEAL strategies and plans.
Below is link to all resources in this presentation along with other helpful documents on EFSVL
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The Rapid Integrated Assessment is designed to be used in the very first days after of an emergency. It asks top level questions on EFSVL, WASH, Shelter, Protection, Gender and Markets in order to gauge the severity of the impact and the primary needs of people affected.
This will allow quick decisions to be made so a response can be activated immediately. This then gives time for further assessments to be carried out to determine next phase activities.
survey can be done manually or digitally using Mobenzi digital data collection tool.
Cash for work
Grants to traders
Cash for seeds and tools
Cash vouchers for inputs such as charcoal to cook
Whilst there may be specific EFSVL needs, as much as possible, we should strive to develop an
integrated response plan
with the other technical areas and support teams. This not only helps to manage resources efficiently but also contributes to more impact for the communities we support.
Some examples of integrated programming include:
• joint assessments with WASH, Protection and Gender
• joint programme design and proposal submission, with input from Logistics, Finance and HR
• joint beneficiary targeting and registration with WASH, Gender and Protection
• joint baseline and activity monitoring with WASH, Gender and Protection
• joint distribution teams
• joint resources such as data collection tools, vehicles, other equipment etc
• joint activity planning
Once the assessments have been analysed and the appropriate intervention has been selected together with affected communities and any partners, the process of proposal writing needs to commence, or be finalised. Suitable donors may already have been identified in which case there will be existing formats, if not a minimum amount of information needs to be prepared before offering up to donors.
This will usually include:
geographic location of intervention
justification for intervention
programme objectives, expected results and indicators in a Logframe
the choice of partner (if appropriate)
" makes the logical connection between the planned activities, the expected results and the desired objectives of the programme, as well as identifying indicators to measure if the results and objectives have been met.
When determining indicators for an EFSVL project, these should include Oxfam’s core EFSVL indicators, as well as a selection of other relevant programmatic indicators by programme area.
The core indicators (such as Food Consumption and Coping Strategies) are usually mandatory, whilst the programmatic indicators (impact, outcome, output and process) are intended to supplement these, depending on the programmatic area of work (eg agriculture, food assistance, livestock etc) for each project.
Project staff should select those programmatic indicators they want to use to supplement the core ones, depending on the project objectives, activities and context. These indicators are to be used for baselines, for monitoring throughout the project cycle and for final evaluations: (There is more detail on this in the Monitoring section later)
When carrying out a programme, where possible it is nearly always beneficial to work with local organisations. Programmes implemented in partnership tend to bring increased knowledge, skills, reach and experience in relation to the specific context we are working in. They are also are likely to be better at encouraging and enabling the real participation and investment of people living in poverty.
All partnerships should be based on the Oxfam Statement of Partnership Principles, which consists of these six core principles:
• Shared vision and values.
• Complementarity of purpose and value added
• Autonomy and independence.
• Transparency and mutual accountability.
• Clarity on roles and responsibilities.
• Commitment to joint learning
When selecting a partner you can use the Partnership Companion and Partnership Management and the Assessing Partner Organisation Capacity in an Emergency toolkits to guide you through assessment, selection and support for partners.
Beneficiary targeting will depend upon the needs of people, the objectives of the programme and resources available. In conjunction with the relevant stakeholders (beneficiaries themselves, community leaders, partners, local authorities, other organisations etc) you will need to agree upon how many people can be supported and how they will be selected.
The first consideration is whether you will carry out a blanket targeting (ie all individuals or households within that location will benefit) or whether will you target individuals who meet certain criteria. In a new emergency, where there may be a camp setting, blanket targeting is likely to be the fasted and easiest method of assisting affected people. In a protracted crisis, where resources are invariably tight, some households may have established coping mechanism, leaving others much more vulnerable and so setting targeting criteria with the community will ensure that the most vulnerable families are supported.
If you don’t already have an "activity plan", or "Gantt Chart", and even if you do, it is a good idea to work through the timings of all the necessary activities with the programme team, support teams, partner and any other stakeholders involved. This is commonly done through an
This will ensure that all activities have been thought through with the right people and that they can be achieved within the time frame. It is better to know early on and discuss with management and even the donor if you know that an activity is unachievable within the given timeframe, to avoid surprises and complications later on.
This activity plan can then be used to monitor activities as the project goes along and should be adjusted as and when necessary.
Working closely with the Logistics team you will need to create a "supply plan" and make the "purchase requisitions" for all the logistical requirements for the programme. This is not just the actual EFSVL programme inputs (such as seeds, tools, livestock etc) but needs to include any vehicle requirements, office space and stationary, staff accommodation, distribution costs (such as items for setting up a fair, or producing beneficiary identification cards), visibility items (t-shirts / stickers) and any monitoring needs (such as mobile phones / tablets for data collection) etc.
The standard form to use is the Requisition form, it is important to involve the Logistics team from the beginning and to put in as much information into the form as possible to avoid any disappointment or frustration. You can look at “how to complete requisitions” as well as the “blank requisition form”.
Once funding has been confirmed, staff, if they are not already in place need to be recruited. In an emergency,
are often in place which means that some of the statutory procedures are temporarily lifted. This allows for more rapid implementation of certain Finance, HR and Logistics processes.
One example of this is the ability to head-hunt staff into roles either internally or externally, for up to 6 months (after which a formal recruitment process must take place). This by-passes the often lengthy recruitment process and gets staff on the ground fast so they can start delivery, during which time the longer term recruitment process takes place alongside. Staff can also be seconded from other programmes, with their manager’s agreement.
If a full recruitment process is required the level / grade of the roles need to be agreed, "Staff Requisition" forms must be completed, with the correct budget codes and signed by the appropriate budget holder, and a "job profile or "Terms of Reference" (ToR) provided. This will require close work with the HR teams to plan out the "recruitment schedule" and to clarify roles and responsibilities for each stage of the process.
earning (MEAL) are part of everyday programme management and are critical to the success of our programmes. They help programme teams to learn what does and doesn’t work in their efforts to overcome poverty and suffering and to adapt their programmes in light of what they find. This, in turn, helps Oxfam to maximise the effectiveness of its interventions.
The processes and products of monitoring and evaluation also provide a documented record of the programme, and help strengthen accountability – supporting Oxfam to give an account to its wide range of stakeholders for its decisions and actions, and providing opportunities to take account of their views and opinions.
Monitoring is the routine, ongoing collection and review of information on a programme activities, outputs, and outcomes that provides programme managers and other stakeholders with indications of progress against programmtic plans and towards objectives.
It is a collaborative process between Oxfam staff, partners and communities to review what has happened, identify intended and unintended changes and consider whether activities have contributed to those changes.
This regular collection of information shows whether or not the programme is performing as expected, or if adjustments are necessary. Well planned, timely monitoring allows problems to be quickly identified and programme activities to be adapted in order to optimise their impact. Monitoring can also provide data on unexpectecd or unplanned aspects beyond specified indicators which can then be amended if necessary.
Dietary Diversity and Food Consumption
• Dietary diversity and food consumption is measured through asking about the frequency of consumption of different food groups. Several methodologies and tools exist for this and some countries may already have standard ways of working. As such, the following tools could be used on their own or in combination with each other and / or other indicators:
a. Food consumption Score (FCS)
b. Household Hunger Scale (HHS)
c. Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) *
d. Number of meals per day
* In certain circumstances (notably where there are suspected high levels of malnutrition) teams may also prefer to supplement the HDDS with the Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) e.g. for under 5 year olds or pregnant and lactating women
• Measuring coping strategies through the,
Coping Strategy Index
(CSI), is a useful way to understand household food security as well as monitor the impact of a humanitarian intervention.
The CSI measures behavior: the things that people do when they cannot access enough food. There are a number of fairly regular behavioral responses to food insecurity—or coping strategies—that people use to manage household food shortage. These coping strategies are easy to observe and it is quicker, simpler, and cheaper to collect information on coping strategies than on actual household food consumption levels. So this is a useful tool to use for verification of other indicators as well as being an appropriate tool for situations when other methods are not practical or timely.
The types of strategies people usually employ in times of food scarcity are based around the types of food eaten (less preferred or cheaper foods); where the food comes from (borrowing, begging, gathering from the wild etc); the number of people eating (sending children to others etc); and the frequency and size of meals (skipping meals, limiting portion size, feeding children first etc).
Market based programming: all Oxfam programmes should be market aware and as such should have at their core an indicator to measure this. Depending on the context and objectives of your programme, choose suitable indicators from the programmatic indicator worksheet ‘market based programming’.
Risk of alnutrition of children under 5 years of age in the household measured by Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) – usually collected as secondary data in certain circumstances: Please refer to Nutrition PQS for details.
Resilience measurements: currently under discussion within Oxfam are resilience measurement indicators. These are attached as an annex ‘Measuring Resilience’ for reference and concrete guidance will be built into these PQS as soon as practical.
Oxfam’s EFSVL Core Process Indicators:
Number of people benefiting from the implemented activity or project, disaggregated by sex.
For CTPs, evolution of market prices to check value of aid being supplied against intended objectives of the programme
In addition to Oxfam’s core indicators, programmatic indicators should be chosen depending on the scope and context of the project. These indicators are divided by programmatic theme below and are suggested impact, outcome, output and process/activity indicators.
1. Cash based interventions, including cash grants, vouchers, cash for work etc
2. Food assistance (including general food distribution, food vouchers, fresh food vouchers, food for work etc)
3. Hunger Safety Net and Social Protection interventions
4. Agriculture interventions
5. Livestock and Fishery interventions
6. Income Generating Activities/enterprise development
7. Education/Training/Capacity Building interventions
Surveillance/Early Warning System interventions
Evaluations complement ongoing monitoring activities by providing more in-depth, objective assessments of a programme’s design, implementation and results at particular points in time. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, enbaling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decision-making process of both recipients and donors. Evaluation also refers to the proces of determining the worth or siginifcance of an activity, policy or program. It is an assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of a planned, on-going or completed development intervention.
Reviews provide opportunities for country and regional teams to meet with stakeholders in order to review their roles and strategies within their countries and regions based on information from processes such as Monitoring Reviews, programme evaluations, research reports and analyses of external trends. Country Learning Reviews happen on an annual basis, while Regional Learning Reviews happen every two years.
Real Time Evaluation
A real-time evaluation is an internal rapid review carried out early on in a humanitarian response (usually between six weeks to two months after the onset of the emergency) in order to gauge effectiveness and to adjust or correct the manner in which the response is being carried out. It should be seen as “a snap-shot in time” or a time to “step back and reflect.”
Real time evaluation
is closer to monitoring getting quick feedback on operational performance and identifying systemic issues. The RTEs can be conducted by a single affiliate or as OI.
An RTE is not:
An in-dept or impact assessment
Scientifically sound research
A formal technical review
A tool to produce detailed statistics
A primary data collection exercise
A rapid appraisal of program performance
A “fresh look” by outsiders
A mechanism to provide rapid and timely feedback
Qualitative in nature
Link to budget examples
Oxfam's key components are WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene), EFSVL (Emergency Food Security and Vulnerable Livelihoods), often Shelter and sometimes standalone Protection and Gender programmes. Throughout our programmes gender, protection, resilience and advocacy are routinely considered and incorporated.
What else do we need to consider before, during and after EFSVL Programming?
Gender in EFSVL
Why does gender matter in an emergency situation?
Crises, whether natural or man made, have different impacts on women, girls, men and boys:
Women and men respond differently in the way they cope to survive and support their dependents.
Gender roles can change across age and over time in a crisis situation which can create tension between men and women that can result in increased problems related to Gender Based Violence.
When analysing a context women and men, girls and boys, bring different concerns, perspectives, experiences and solutions to the table. A clear and accurate picture of the situation cannot be attained if 50% of the population is not consulted.
Women and girls have specific needs in emergencies, for instance for menstruation. Access to reproductive health services also need to be ensured for pregnant and lactating women.
Gender and Livelihoods in an Emergency
In a crisis men and women have different resources, credit and commodities available to them and we need to understand what these are in order to make appropriate programmatic decisions
Crises usually increase the burden on women so when desinging activities we need to understand existing family and household responsibilities to ensure we dont increase these
A gender sensitive approach to livelihoods entails an understanding of skill set needs, vulnerabilities and responsibilities of affected women, men, girls and boys.
Livelihoods programs in emergency situations provide important opportunities to promote higher standards of gender equality in economic life, by affirming women’s role as economic agents and by promoting equal access to resources and to decision making mechanisms. This can link to longer-term Women's Economic Empowerment (WEE).
What information do we need to design gender responsive EFSVL programmes?
Actions to Ensure Gender programming in EFSVL
Population Dynamics - no of households and family members disaggregated? no of single female and male headed households? no of unaccompanied children, elderly, disabled, sick, pregnant and lactating women?
Access and Control of livelihood assets - what are the main assets needs for a sustainable livelihood and how have they been affected? What type of livelihoods and skills existed before for men and women?
Pre-crisis cultural roles and practices of men and women - what are the roles of males and females in food preparation and productive activities? Who has decision making power over assets and expenditure? Are there discriminatory practices against women or female headed households?
Changes in workload, responsibilities and gender roles as a result of the emergency - how much time is spent on unpaid work? Are traditional forms of income generation still being practiced? Have responsibilities changed or increased for men and women? Are there security concerns which limit access to markets and productive resources?
Ensure equal participation of women, girls, men and boys in planning and implementing meetings - convene meetings which suit both men and women, arrange child care and / or separate meetings if necessary.
Equal access to, and benefits from, EFSVL programs for women, girls, boys and men such as vocational trainings, income generation activities. Is there a need for leadership / empowerment activities? Do women have the necessary literacy / numeracy skills? Can existing skills and cultural practices be built upon?
Understand cultural differences and meet the needs of vulnerable populations - ensure the needs of ethnic and religious minorities are considered and look at approaches which build collaboration between minority and majority groups.
Useful Tools and Resources
Rapid Care Analysis
Gender in Emergencies Handbook
Livelihoods Gender Checklist
Food Distribution Gender Checklist
Food Security Gender Checklist
Little Gender Handbook
Preparing and understanding your budget is an important part of project cycle management. It is imperative to work with
Funding, Finance, HR and Logistics
teams to gather the estimated costings for each budget line. Working with the support teams from an early stage will ensure there are no surprises or confusions later on. Finance will help you locate the correct budget template to use and how to fill it in. Key costs to consider are programme inputs and related distribution costs, staff salaries and benefits, vehicles and fuel, office and accomodation rent, supplies and maintenence costs, monitoring and evaluation expenses, Advisory visits, Partner grants etc.
You will need to select the appropriate PeopleSoft Account codes for each line so that these can be linked to the financial system. Account codes are available on the PeopleSoft Account Code spreadsheet for different staff needs, activities, supplies etc.
Notable codes specifically related to EFSVL are EFSVL and Cash/Markets staff, Food aid and Cash Transfer Programming codes.
Eg If you are budgeting for national level EFSVL Assistants use the code 45057 labelled Nat Staff-EFSVL Assistant.
Or if you are budgeting for a Conditional Value Voucher programme use the code 48704 labelled Conditional Value Voucher
You can find explanations for and how to chose the appropriate Cash account codes on the EFSVL Toolbox.
Humanitarian Evaluations on Sumus
TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE GHT, PLEASE CONSULT THE GHT GUIDEBOOK
How do we do EFSVL Programming?
Oxfam’s approach to EFSVL, where feasible, is fundamentally market-based, delivering immediate aid through existing market structures, whilst supporting and strengthening markets, assisting the development of enterprises or financial services, or rehabilitating infrastructure. This could be in-kind, cash or voucher modalities to meet food or livelihood needs.
Markets are the lifeline of most of the world’s people, and responses must be based on a good understanding of key markets or they risk undermining livelihoods in the longer term. Market analysis is a critical part of Oxfam’s emergency response. Understanding the key constraints (environmental, legal or logistical) and opportunities in those markets allows us to determine which range of response options will strengthen market systems for the future. Oxfam has played a key role in the wider sector through its work developing tools for market support in emergencies, such as the
Over the last few years, market based interventions have become one of Oxfam’s most widely-used response mechanisms -using either cash transfers or vouchers to meet food needs. Through these market-based programmes, Oxfam seeks to increase the resilience of vulnerable people, and the markets they depend upon, through working closely with communities, traders and other market actors.
The use of
Cash Transfer Programming
(CTP) continues to grow within Oxfam, which is why it is crucial to have sound policies and procedures that ensure consistency of process and clarity of roles and responsibilities for all members of the response team - be they programmatic or support staff.
Working with markets and Cash Standard Operating Procedures and Guidance Notes”
provide Oxfam teams, across the different departments and sectors, a structured overview of how CTPs can be designed and implemented within Oxfam’s programmes.
There are a variety of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) options available to support EFSVL programming in Oxfam.
These include :
- For beneficiary registration and distributions
Survey CTO / Mobenzi
– For needs assessment surveys, baselines, monitoring and feedback
– For mapping EFSVL activities
As well as new technologies such as Redrose who offer platforms for e-vouchers or e-cash. (https://www.redrosecps.com)
For more on ICT’s in Oxfam see here: http://ict4d.oxfam.org.uk/
All Oxfam humanitarian programmes aim to be ‘safe programmes’ that do no harm and are conflict sensitive. This is the responsibility of all humanitarian staff.
In our EFSVL work this might mean:
- making sure that aid distributions don’t exacerbate tensions between two rival groups and locations are well chosen to not put people at further risk
- Taking care with vulnerability criteria to be conflict sensitive and ensure we do not put households at harm in their selection.
- ensuring we encorporate risk, power and vulnerability analysis into our needs assessments and activities
Monitoring of prices in markets is key throughout the EFSVL programme cycle, especially when we are distributing cash or vouchers. Monioring prices, as well as accessibility of markets helps us to understand market functionality and the appropriateness of our response.
Market monitoring forms can be found here: