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Yuan Fon Go

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of Stress

What is stress?
According to Malim and Birch (1998), external conflict and internal conflict are the main causes of stress.
Factors of Stress
Effects of Stress
5Rs Stress Management
Solutions of Stress
Introduction to Stress
Generally View
Stress is always a complex issue but will be even more complex if it is left unattended (Wan Hussin, 2007).
Stress is generally defined as a condition of mental is under pressure which caused by individual and social problems as well as inner and outer self-factors (Redhwan,et al.,2009).
Psychologically View
In psychologically point of view, Stress includes external and internal stimuli, the physiological response to these stimuli, and psychological processes that mediate between stimulus and response. The psychological processes include the differences between individuals in their perception of the environmental demands and their own capacity to deal with them (Cox, 1978).
External Conflict
External conflict is defined as struggle between individual and external forces which include people, situation and environment (Malim and Birch, 1998).
Stress that caused from a conflict with people such as parents, children, lovers or others.
For example, argument between husband and wife would bring stress to the third party who witnesses the argument.
Stress that caused from conflict situations.
For instance, facing congestion while on the way to work caused a situation where the individual is helpless would also lead that individual to have stress.
Environmental events
Stress that caused from surrounded incidents.
For example, noise and high temperatures of surrounded environment would also cause people to have stress.
Internal Conflict
Internal conflicts occur when individual has to make decision between two incompatible or mutually exclusive options. There are three types of internal conflicts which are approach-approach conflict, avoidance-avoidance conflict and approach-avoidance conflict(Malim and Birch, 1998).
Approach-Approach Conflict
A choice must be made between two attractive goals. You may want both, but can only have one. For example, two jobs are offer to you and both of the jobs give good amount of salary, but both jobs required full work time so you only could choose either one, eventually you are stress out because of it (Malim and Birch, 1998).
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
A choice must be made between two unattractive goals. For instance, two options of punishment are given to a child, apparently the child would like to avoid both punishments, however, he must choose either one, eventually the child will stress out on choosing the two options of punishment (Malim and Birch, 1998).
Approach – Avoidance Conflict
A choice must be made to pursue a single goal that has both positive and negative aspect. For example, a man having hesitation to ask for a date because it will either have positive outcome or negative outcome, so the man would stress out while having hesitation of asking for a date (Malim and Birch, 1998).
Stress Symptoms!
Health Problems!
Stress will lead stress symptoms which means changing of reactions due to stress, and it consists of four types which are physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, behavioral symptoms and cognitive symptoms (David, Sam Jayakumar and Sulthan, 2013).
Physical Symptoms
Digestive problems
Aches and pains
Diarrhea or constipation
Nausea, dizziness
Chest pain, rapid heartbeat
Loss of sex drive
Frequent colds
4As Stress Management
Focused Coping
5-steps emotional management
5Rs Stress Management
5Rs stress management model consists of reorganize, rethink, reduce, relax and release could help to tolerate with stress (Tartakovsky ,2011).
It is essential to have a healthy lifestyle for stress management. Build healthy habit and reorganize your health enable to supply more energy and develop tolerate resilience. For example, exercise could enhance your physical muscles as well as your brain to process efficiently and effectively (Blona, 2012).
Blona (2012) talks that through changing your point of view could also help to mitigate your stress. Some stress are inevitable from life, but we do have the power to change these stress into our motivation or tolerate with these stress and do not let them to stop you in moving forward. Even though we could not eliminate stress, we should not let it stop us in our tracks (Blona, 2012).
Avoid the problems we are involved in and as time pass, the amount of problems we accumulated could eventually lead us to suffer from stress (Blona, 2012). Even fun things could become sources of stress if people are overwhelmed. Therefore, solve problems step by step and reduce the level of targets and goals, and increase back slowly by time pass could reduce our stress level (Blona, 2012).
According to Blona (2012), stress could be mange through clinically proven relaxing methods such as deep breathing and systematic muscle relaxation. It is not necessary to be done in a daily basis due to busy lifestyle, but is essential to make relaxation as priority in daily life (Blona, 2012).
Blona (2012) stated that consume energy that respond to stress and reduce muscle tension enable to lower our stress level. There type of physical activity could reduce our stress which includes mild, moderate and vigorous activities. For instance, mild activities are walking and standing, while for moderate activities are jogging and cycling, and vigorous activities are running and lifting weights (Blona 2012).
4As Stress Management
According to Smith, Segal and Segal (2014), stress can also be managed using the 4As stress management model which are avoid, alter, adapt and accept.
Focused- Coping
Lazarus and Folkman (1984) suggest there are two main forms of coping:
emotion-focused coping
problem-focused coping
5-steps emotional management
According to Segal (2014), one of the effective ways to manage stress is 5-steps emotional management which consists of learn why your emotions matter, discover quick stress relief, beat stress with emotional connection, be comfortable with all your emotions and practice and enjoy the benefits.
According to Smith, Segal and Segal (2014), avoid unnecessary stress could help to handle stress. Even though not every stress could be avoided, but some stress could be avoid through learning how to say “NO”. Through differentiating “should” and “must” on your to-do-list and clearly separating people and situation that create stress apart from you could help to remove many sources of stress in your daily life (Smith, Segal and Segal, 2014).
Smith, Segal and Segal (2014) mention that alter the situation when you can’t avoid a stressful situation, enable people to tolerate with stress. Be determined and assertive when facing with problems. Let people know about your concerns of the problems and be more willing to compromise, instead of keeping it to yourself and increase stress on yourself (Smith, Segal and Segal, 2014).
Smith, Segal and Segal (2014) state that when the stressors are unchangeable, adapt to the stressors and try changing yourself instead enable to mitigate people stress level. Remain positive and reshape the problems and adapt the problems in a positive view. For instance, if a task at your job stressed you out, you should focus on the aspect that enjoy you most in your job or by changing your point of view, seeing problem as your source of motivation(Smith, Segal and Segal, 2014).
Stress could be tolerated through accepting the facts of unchangeable situations (Smith, Segal and Segal, 2014). Learn to accept the unavoidable stressors rather than changing the situation and creating it even more stressful. It could be an opportunity to growth, when we learn to accept these stressful circumstances (Smith, Segal and Segal, 2014) .
Emotional-focused Coping
According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984), emotion-focused coping is a strategy of reducing human disturbing affections and emotions which indirectly accompany with stress experience.
For example:
Social Support
Positive Thinking
Social Support
Lazarus and Folkman (1984) mention that social support is one of the emotion-focused coping that helps to mitigate stress. Social support is defined as the willingness of friends and relatives to give psychological assistance. Research has shown that extreme stress could be reduced through social support.
For example, husband who facing difficulties in work could ask for advices from wife and this could mitigate husband’s stress level (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984).
Positive Thinking
According to Scott (2014), have an optimistic thinking is a way of maximizing individuals’ power in different situations and keep individuals in touch with their selection. By having optimistic thinking could reduce individuals’ stress and help individuals to feel stronger in difficult situations (Scott, 2014).
Problem Focused-Coping
Problem-focused coping involves of different forms of stress management which help to understand the problem situation and solve it with actions (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984).
For example:
Time Management
Relaxation And Meditation
Time Management
According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984), good time management could decrease our stress level. Effective timetable will not necessary be good to people because it might become a source of stress. The key of organize a good timetable is efficient which means find efficient methods to achieve daily or weekly goals. Developing priorities and working on it is an efficient way of time management (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984).
Relaxation and Meditation
Relaxation and meditation enable people to stay focus and give full attention on specific thoughts (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). If full attention is given on specific thoughts, our brain would not continually thinking of worries and anxieties which would lead stress. Blood and heart rate are lowered as well as breathing is controlled during relaxation and meditation. Eventually, mind is clear with worries and anxieties and this could reduce our stress level (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984).
Step 1: Learn Why Your Emotions Matter
Powerful of emotions are covering thoughts, changing relationships, and affecting behavior deeply. To allow power that controlled by us to understand ourselves, overcome challenges, and build strong relationships we need emotional intelligence (EQ). The best is we can learn emotional intelligence any time. (Segal, 2014)
Step 2: Discover Quick Stress Relief
Learn how to recognize when you are overstressed and quickly balance yourself to avoid getting more stresses. There are lots of ways to deal with stress. For example, exercise, yoga, and meditation are the best way to allow all work wonders for relieving stress. But it is not practical or impossible to go for a run or meditate when you are too tired because of your morning commute, stay in a stressful meeting at work, or fried from another argument with your spouse. To this kind of situation, you need something more accessible. That is how quick stress relief work. (Segal, 2014)
Step 3: Beat Stress with Emotional Connection
Moment-to-moment awareness of the effect of your emotions have on your thoughts and actions is the main key to both managing or balancing stress and understanding among yourself and others. So, emotional connection is a skill which means that with the patience and practice, it can be learned at any time of life. The process of raising emotional awareness involves connecting again with all of the core emotions; consist of anger, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, and joy with a process of self-healing (Segal, 2014).
Step 4: Be Comfortable With All Your Emotions
Your emotion our feeling is like a wild horse, full of fear and uncontrolled energy. The only way to accept these feeling is to learned how to paralyzed ourself from all these feeling. As what you have learned previously, many of us subconsciously learned to numb and dampen our feelings. it looks like it it hard to succeed but actually it is not hard to do it. What we need to do is just simply tighten our muscles and hold our breath. What we refuse to do, at the same time we will also restrict our emotion, because there is a strong relationship between our physical and emotional feelings. By focusing on the sensory in your body, you will become more connect with your emotions. (Segal, 2014).
Step 5: Practice and Enjoy the Benefits
Practicing non-stop and enjoy the benefit of the habit until you can control your physical and emotion feeling, which mean you can remain calm and be focused when you are having stress. Every time when you do it right, you should be feeling there is an energy behind supporting you, making you feel more comfortable with what stress you are facing. If you still feeling uncomfortable with your feeling, you can breathe deeply and try to relax your body. But if the feeling happen when out of your control, you have to follow quick stress relief step to help yourself to bring your nervous level down into a balance level (Segal,2014).
Cognitive Symptoms
Memory problem
Poor judgment
Negative thinking
Memory problems
Inability to concentrate
Anxious or racing thoughts
Constant worrying
Emotion Symptoms
Irritability or short temper
Agitation, inability to relax
Feeling overwhelmed
Sense of loneliness and isolation
Depression or general unhappiness
Behavioral Symptoms
Ignoring responsibilities
Non-stop working
Change in habits
Eating more or less
Sleeping too much or too little
Isolating yourself from others
Procrastinating or neglecting responsibilities
Using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs to relax
Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)
According to Engs (1987), stress could lead health problems which when stress occurs, brain would send signals to autonomic nervous system and affect involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and body fluid regulation. Simultaneously, pituitary gland is stimulated and causes several chemical hormones to release.
Health Problems
Engs (1987) mentions that these processes cause the following health problems to occur:
Acceleration of heart rate
Dilation of coronary arteries
Dilation of bronchial tubes
Increase in force of heart contractions
Increase in rate of metabolism
Increase in anxiety
Increase in gastrointestinal motility
Increase in rate and depth of respiration
Decrease in feeling of tiredness
Decrease in Salvation
Dilation of pupils
Stress symptoms and health problems eventually lead difficulties and inconvenient to human daily life as well as serious illness to human beings!!!(Engs, 1987).
There are two types of stress which is physical stress and emotional stress. Physical stress is a type of stress that individual’s body reacted to the stress and emotional stress is a type of stress that individual mentally feeling under pressure that reacted from stress(A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, 2012).
Emotional stress usually occurs in situations people consider difficult or challenging. People may feel stressed in different situations.(A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, 2012).
Physical stress is a physical reaction of the body to various triggers. The pain experienced after surgery is an example of physical stress. Physical stress often leads to emotional stress, and emotional stress often occurs in the form of physical stress (A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, 2012).

All images without citation are from google free downloads
All videos without citation are from youtube free online streaming
Contents are credit to the authors accordingly to the in text citation authors
Online videos:
Here are some videos to educate how to manage our stress. Enjoy! :)
Stress Relief Exercises - Pressure points
5 Quick stress release tips
Online activities
FUNNY stress management
Online Survey
Purpose: To understand how well you are on coping your stress.
by: Go Yuan Fon, Clement Wong Khai Wern and Tan Teck Meng (2014)
Sources: Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., and Mermelstein, R., 1983. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386-396.
Sources: Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., and Mermelstein, R., 1983. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386-396.
Note: This questionnaire is not intended to replace professional diagnosis.
(Smith , Segal, Segal 2014)
(Smith , Segal, Segal 2014)
(David, Sam Jayakumar and Sulthan, 2013)
(David, Sam Jayakumar and Sulthan, 2013)
Thank you for your time for viewing our online presentation! :)
(Malim and Birch, 1998).
(Malim and Birch, 1998).
(Malim and Birch, 1998).
Stress is a state of mind being under pressure which is caused by conflicting outer and inner self factors, experienced by all category of age and gender (Redhwan,et al.,2009).
Stress is a situation when people tend to focus on negative feelings and emotions it produces (Redhwan,et al.,2009).
Stress is a condition of mental pressure for particular individual facing problems from environmental and social well-being which leads to so many diseases (Redhwan,et al.,2009).
Stress is a state of worry experienced by a person in particular circumstances such as environment, physical, mental and social conditions, etc (Redhwan,et al.,2009).
Stress is unstable emotions that lead to piling which disable us to think wisely (Redhwan,et al.,2009).

Coping Stress Strategies
According to American Psychological Association, 2013, there are 5 strategies to cope with stress which are identify causes of stress, build strong relationships, avoid anger, mind relaxation and ask for assistance.
Coping Stress Strategies
Identify what's causing stress. Monitor your state of mind throughout the day. If you feel stressed, write down the cause, your thoughts and your mood. Once you know what's bothering you, develop a plan for addressing it. That might mean setting more reasonable expectations for yourself and others or asking for help with household responsibilities, job assignments or other tasks. List all your commitments, assess your priorities and then eliminate any tasks that are not absolutely essential (American Psychological Association, 2013).
Build strong relationships. Relationships can be a source of stress. Research has found that negative, hostile reactions with your spouse cause immediate changes in stress-sensitive hormones, but relationships can also serve as stress buffers. Reach out to family members or close friends and let them know you're having a tough time. They may be able to offer practical assistance and support, useful ideas or just a fresh perspective as you begin to tackle whatever's causing your stress (American Psychological Association, 2013).
Walk away when you're angry. Before you react, take time to regroup by counting to 10. Then reconsider. Walking or other physical activities can also help you work off steam. Plus, exercise increases the production of endorphins, your body's natural mood-booster. Commit to a daily walk or other form of exercise — a small step that can make a big difference in reducing stress levels (American Psychological Association, 2013).
Rest your mind. According to APA's 2012 Stress in America survey, stress keeps more than 40 percent of adults lying awake at night. To help ensure you get the recommended seven or eight hours of shut-eye, cut back on caffeine, remove distractions such as television or computers from your bedroom and go to bed at the same time each night. Research shows that activities like yoga and relaxation exercises not only help reduce stress, but also boost immune functioning (American Psychological Association, 2013).
Mind Relaxation
Get help. If you continue to feel overwhelmed, consult with a psychologist or other licensed mental health professional who can help you learn how to manage stress effectively. He or she can help you identify situations or behaviors that contribute to your chronic stress and then develop an action plan for changing them (American Psychological Association, 2013).
What are the causes of stress?
We all react differently to stressful situations. What one person finds stressful another may not at all. Almost anything can cause stress and it has different triggers. For some people, on some occasions, just thinking about something, or several small things that accumulate, can cause stress (Nordqvist, 2009)
The most common causes of stress are:
Family problems
Financial matters
Job issues
Lack of time
Moving home
(Nordqvist, 2009)
The following are uncommon (unique conditions) and possible causes of stress:
Becoming a mother or a father
Conflicts in the workplace
Driving in bad traffic
Fear of crime
Losing your job
Noisy neighbors
Too much noise
(Nordqvist, 2009)
Facts about Stress in U.S
59% report that managing their time to balance all activities is a somewhat or very significant stressor

40% say they neglected responsibilities at home because of stress; 21% say they neglected work or school because of stress;

32% say they experience headaches because of stress; 26% report changes in sleeping habits;

26% report snapping at or being short with classmates or teammates when under stress.
37% report exercising less than once a week or not at all

27% say they eat to manage stress

43% exercise or walk and 9% play sports to manage stress

62% manage stress with screen time: 42% go online; 42% watch two or more hours of TV or movies a day; 21% play video games.
(Sharon, 2014)
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