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Succession after volcanic eruptions

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by

Alex Grant

on 28 November 2012

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Transcript of Succession after volcanic eruptions

PRIMARY SUCCESSION Succession after volcanic eruptions the formation of an ecosystem from bare rock - Primarily by air- Seeds and spores transported by air - Land in pockets in the soil that have enough moisture to allow them to germinate - As these grow, dead leaves and roots enrich the soil with organic content Methods of plant arrivals - After the eruption in Mt. St. Helens, some burrowing animals, survived
- Gophers came up through the ash and mixed the soil with it enriching it
- Other species from nearby ecosystems such as the wolf-spider and the cricket appeared.
- In general, small animals colonise by traveling attached to other animals or by swimming or floating on a log Animal colonisation Succession in regards to the process by which plants colonize can be described through the advancement of the different seral stages. A sere stage in a sequence of events by which the vegetation of an area and develop in it are called the pioneer community. A prisere is the complete chain of successive seres beginning with a pioneer community and ending with a climax vegetation. Each climatic zone only one type of climax vegetation could evolve. We refer to this as the climatic climax vegetation, now known as the monoclimax concept. Each individual sere is referred to by one or more of the larger species within that community. The dominant species may be the largest plants or trees in the community which exerts the maximum influence on the local environment or habitat, or the most numerous species in the community. It can take several thousand years to reach a climatic climax. Communities are, however, relatively ephemeral on timescales of millennia.
Sequence and timings of plant colonization and the climax vegetation cover Disturbance *INERTIA:resistance to being altered
*RESILIENCE: ability of a system to recover after disturbance
*DIVERSITY: the number and portions of species present gopher(Thomomys bottae) wolf spider (Hogna lenta) cricket(Gryllus assimilis) - Pioneer species such as lichens, become attached to the lava
- Lava is broken down by the lichens, creating soil
- Mosses appear which out compete lichens
- Other pioneer species include bacteria and fungi Pioneer Species Moss (Funaria hygrometrica) Image showing wind dispersal of seeds Lichen (Parmelia sulcata) Primary Succession what happens during primary succession: 1. Subduction of heavier oceanic crust beneath the lighter continental crust. This can lead to new island arcs, and mountain areas where magma rises up from under the subduction area causing volcanic action and thickening of the crust. 2. Oceanic crust is subducted beneath oceanic crust -as both are the same density. Resulting volcanic activity from rising magma causes new islands to form, with new habitats. 3. Continental plates collide, leading to an increase in thickness and eventually to new mountain ranges. Creation of new habitats at different altitudes adds to the biodiversity of the region. 4. Continental plates moving apart cause rift valleys. Deep lakes and new seas may form in these valleys. Magma rising from the rift can stick to the seperating plates creating new land, again creating new opportunities for species evolution. 5. In some areas hot rock rises from deep and breaks through the oceanic crust. This movement of plates can create chains of islands. Factors that determine the ability of ecosystems to recover
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