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Speaking to Persuade
Transcript of Speaking to Persuade
you feel strongly about
other people may have different views on Once you have chosen a topic, your next step is to state your specific purpose. This statement will be the basis for your thesis statement, a complete sentence that can state any one of the following: To get people to think, to believe, or to act the way you want them to, you can use three persuasive techniques:
Logos First consider the possible makeup of your audience and how best to adapt your speech to that particular audience. Even though individual members of an audience may have many different attitudes about a topic, as a whole they can be classified as:
mostly hostile The way you organize your speech will be guided by your impression of your audience's attitude and by the nature of your material. Persuasive speeches are organized according to two approaches:
Inductive Since an audience can grasp information better by seeing and hearing it than by hearing it alone, look for opportunities to use visual materials.
The best way to accomplish this is through:
Testimony Any time you try to convince someone to think, believe or act as you want them to, you are speaking to persuade. What is persuasion? establishes a fact
changes a belief
moves an audience to act on a policy A persuasive speech is one that: How successfully you are in presenting a persuasive speech depends on what you say and how you say it -- your content and delivery Persuasive speeches deal with three types of questions that can be answered in more than one way: focuses on what is right or wrong, good or bad, best or worst, moral or immoral. While you cannot prove that a belief is true or false, you can supply convincing information to justify a belief. Questions of Belief Questions of policy focuses on a particular action. You try to convince the audience to act on some policy or to agree that some policy should be changed. Questions of Fact Concerns statements that can be seen as either true or false. You offer proof to support a statement of fact, but the audience determines whether you have convincingly proved that the statement of fact is true. High school athletes should be required to maintain a B average to compete interscholastically.
The space program does contribute to our national security.
Recycling can save local communities money. You try The fact you wish to establish
The belief you want to establish or change
The policy you want your audience to support or act on Pathos Ethos Ethical appeal (credibility)
Sometimes we come to believe something or to act upon something simply because someone we trusted told us it was so. Aristotle suggests that the source of the material -- the perception of the persuasive appeal comes from -- is the most powerful mode of persuasion. Emotional appeal
sometimes we come to believe something or to act upon something simply because of a gut feeling or an appeal to our emotions. We act out of fear and greed and also out of love and compassion. We even act in certain ways because we are concerned about what others will think of us. Logos Logical appeal (rational)
Sometimes we come to believe something or to act upon something simply because someone gave us what we considered to be a 'good reason'. Here is where we consider evidence and reasoning as parts of the persuasive process. Logos is the most complicated of the modes of proof and we examine it both to better use arguments in our speaking and writing, ans also to become better critical thinkers when we are in audiences. Aristotle -- Greek teacher/scientist, student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great His work, the Rhetoric, is widely regarded as the most important work on persuasion ever published. Aristotle tackled the question: how do we come to believe something or to believe we should act in a certain way in the absence of knowing "the truth"? It answers the question "Why?" Argument built on reasons supported by evidence. Meeting Ethical Standards Ethical standards are society's guidelines for right, just and moral behavior. Violating ethical standards can destroy a speaker's credibility. It is unethical for public speakers:
to lie or deceive
to engage in name-calling
to attack a person or idea without giving evidence
to deny the opposition the right to reply Establishing your credibility Competence -- state of being well qualified. It comes from knowledge and preparation. To establish your competence, you have to know your topic thoroughly and show that you are knowledgeable.
Sincerity -- quality of being genuine. Primarily conveyed by your tone of voice, and it usually can't be faked.
Dynamism -- the quality of being energetic and enthusiastic. Expressed by your tone of voice as well as by your nonverbal behavior. Developing Emotional Appeal by citing specifics, mention or refer to details or examples that clearly illustrate a point you want to make.
Use vivid language. Enable listeners to picture situations that you are referring to .
Personal references -- refer to the audience directly or relate the topic you are discussing to the audience's direct experience. A favorable audience -- the majority of listeners agree, from slightly to completely with your thesis.
They need to have their exisitng feelings strengthened to such a degree that they will act on their feelings. Neutral Audience
The majority of the listeners have not reached a decision about your thesis. They will generally give all sides an equal hearing. They need information to persuade them to take a stand. Apathetic Audience
majority of listeners have no interest in your thesis. This audience is difficult to persuade. Such listeners need to be shown how your thesis affects them personally. Hostile Audience
the majority of listeners oppose your thesis. With some topics, especially highly controversial ones, you may notice that many people in a hostile audience may specifically object your proposal, while others may favor a different one. Such listeners need to be shown that they are being fair in listening to you, that what you have to say matters to them, and that you are worth listening to. One speech will most likely not sway them, but it may open their minds to your thesis. Deductive Approach Begin with your thesis and then present reasons to support it. When you organize your materials deductively, you try to move your audience from the general to the specific. Statement-of-reasons method thesis is stated directly and followed by supporting reasons. This method works well with favorable audiences. Problem-solution method first present a problem and then offer at least one possible solution for that problem. You continue with this pattern for each problem you have identified.
works will with favorable and neutral audiences and sometimes apathetic audiences if you personalize both the problem and solution convincingly. Comparative Advantage Method presents each reason as a benefit to the audience. Sometimes the advantage of each reason is stated directly or sometimes implied. Works well with neutral audiences, as you might sway them to adopt your viewpoint. Inductive Approach Criteria-Satisfaction Method Negative Method Monroe Motivated Sequence Begin with your reasons and lead up to your thesis. You move your audience from the specific to the general. The purpose of getting the audience to agree to the soundness of certain criteria or standards. then you show how your proposal satisfied those criteria. Especially helpful with a hostile audience who need to be shown that what you have to say matters to them and might be worth listening to. show that no option other than the one you propose is acceptable. This method can work well with a hostile audience if you give your listeners enough solid evidence to convince them to agree with every one of your reasons. Developed by Professor Alan H. Monroe, and is based on the premise that in order to convince an audience to act, a speaker must:
draw attention to the problem
show a need for some action
outline a plan that will satisfy that need
help the audience visualize the benefits of that plan of action
suggest a specific action that puts the plan into practice Persuasion is a psychological process Of all types of speaking, persuasion is the most complex and the most challenging. Because it involves people's most basic attitudes, values and beliefs, no matter how skilled a speaker may be, some listeners are so committed to their own ideas that they cannot be persuaded. Because of this, speakers must enter a speech with realistic goals.