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Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
Transcript of Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
Honors Biology Period 2
June 9, 2015
Temperate Woodland/Shrubland, also known as Chaparral, is found in small sections of most continents.
west coast of United States
west coast of South America
parts of Australia
coastal areas of Mediterranean
nutrient poor, fertile soil
little to no rain fall
5,000 ft. elevation
hot, dry summers
cool, moist summer
Many trees, brush and other plants are home to a variety of animal species. These are being cutdown by humans in order to supplement growing human populations.
The woodland/shrubland biome does not have a very high biodiversity. Plants and Animals can not survive the temperature and dryness.
5. Evergreen Shrubs
6. Blue Oak
9. Olive Tree
There isn't a lot of trees in
the chaparral biome.
Most animals are nocturnal
or burrowing animals
Plants can survive long
periods of drought, heat and fire.
Fire is mostly a positive in a plants
life cycle. The plants adapt to the
fire being constant in their lives
and learn to live with it around.
For example, Blue Oaks are adapted to drought and dry climates. They can survive temperatures above 100° F for several weeks at a time.
Animals don't require much water. They also have learned to live in their biome by being nocturnal and are usually small animals. The animals are all mainly grassland and desert type animals adapted to hot, dry weather.
Pyramid of Energy
The keystone species in the woodland/shrubland biome is the giant kangaroo rat. The giant kangaroo rat is highly endangered. Because of this, the whole ecosystem suffers too. Their burrows are the main reason they are so important. They serve as homes for small animals like lizards and squirrels. Without these burrows these animals have no place to live and have no shelter.
If one animal was hunted the whole food web would be endangered because that animal was once food for another animal and it would just keep going on in a chain effect.
For example, if the grass was removed
from the food chain then the animals like
rabbits and mice would have no food and would
start to die off and then the fox would soon have no food as well. This is an example of a bottom up trophic cascade.
Birth and Death Rates
An example of Predator-Prey relationship in the chaparral is the Grey Fox hunting the Black-Tailed Jackrabbit.
This is an example of interspecific.
It is between two different species.
One example of mutualism in the Chaparral biome is between the Blue Oak and the Common Sage Brush. They both are producers and both
live together without overpowering each other. This is interspecific.
An example of commensilism is the Red-Winged Blackbird and the Torrey Pine. This is because the Torrey Pine drops seeds onto the floor and then the Red-Winged Blackbird eats them. This doesn't benefit or harm the Torrey Pine but does benefit the Blackbird. This is interspecific.
An example of Parasitism is the Pacific Coast Tick. It latches itself onto the San Joachin Kit Fox for food. The Pacific Coast Tick benefits from getting food from the Fox, but the Fox is hurt because the tick transfers diseases into it's bloodstream and sucks up it's blood.This is also interspecific.
Intraspecific competition is competition between organisms of the same species. An example of intraspecific competition is Grey Foxes fighting each other for resources due to a lack of resources and a large population. These resources include prey and shelter.
Interspecific competition is competition between two different species. An example of interspecific competition is the Isand Grey Fox and Iberian Lynx competing for territory.
Mainly, humans build tourist attractions in the chaparral biome. One of the major danger to this biome is humans coming in and building buildings. Humans also come in and build factories. This affects organisms that depend on the natural forest fires to survive. More and more organisms are becoming threatened and even endangered. When these animals become endangered it affects other animals because they don’t get to feed off that animal.
oil in the chaparral biome is very nutrient poor. It takes a long time for fertile soil to form. Most chaparral plants can grow in the desert-like soil while most plants cannot.
Animals in this biome have learned to survive on little to no
ater. The average rainfall is 10 to 17 inches per year.
During the winter, the
emperature can get as low as 30° F and the summers can get up to 100° F. The average temperature in the chaparral biome is 64° F.
ir or wind patterns of the chaparral is generally cool with some dry, ocean breezes.
The chaparral is primarily between 30 – 50 degrees latitude. It is just north of the Tropic of Cancer. Because of the low shrubs that dominate this area, there is a lot of
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Density-independent factors include food or nutrient limitation, and climate extremes and fires.
Density-dependent might be one animal might not getting enough food and it will soon start to die off and become endangered.
Birth and death rates can cause fluctuations in the biome population. Death rates increase as the population gets too large. Also natural disasters decrease the population size. A good example of density-dependent would be a disease. If the population density decreases then the chance of getting the disease would increase. Density-independent factors are typically abiotic and are influenced by the population size.
This is the carrying capacity of the population.
Here are two sets of data taken that can be used to represent the population of Black Bears in the Chaparral biome. The red line on the logistic graph represents the carrying capcity or the amount that the biome can hold.
Importance of Producers and Decomposers
The importance of producers in that the make their own foods, by using photosynthesis, and obtaining energy from the sun. Producers then give off that energy to other organisms. Decomposers are important to the Chaparral for recycling matter, and returning important chemical nutrients like carbon and nitrogen into the soil, air and water to be used by the producers.