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Georgia Landforms and Environments Project

Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Blue Ridge, Piedmont, Coastal Plain (Inner+Outer), Fall Line, Okefenokee Swamp, Appalachian Mtns., Chattahoochee River, Savannah River, Barrier Islands

Madeline Walker

on 24 May 2011

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Transcript of Georgia Landforms and Environments Project

Madeline Walker
Georgia has 5 different regions - Appalachian Plateau, Blue Ridge Mountains, Piedmont, and the Coastal Plains (Inner and outer).
Appalachian Plateau
The Appalachian Plateau is a region in the corner of Northwest Georgia. It is the smallest of the 5 regions. It is surronded by the Ridge and Valley and the Piedmont regions. It sits about 1,800 to 2,000 feet above sea level.
Landforms and other Geographical Features
The TAG corner is located in the Appalachian Plateau. The TAG corner is located at the very corner of the Appalachian Plateau. One of the most famous landforms in the area is Lookout Mountain.
One of the only rivers in the Appalachian Plateau is the Chattooga River. The river begins in Chattooga County, GA, and runs 64.4 miles to the Coosa River.
Cloudland Canyon is a national state park in the Appalachian Plateau. It features 2 waterfalls, and is known as The Little Grand Canyon.
Main Industries in Appalachian Plateau
The largest industry in the Appalachian Plateau is carpet. Dalton, a city in Whitfield County, is the carpet capital of the world. There are more than 150+ carpet plants in Dalton. They employ over 30,000 people in the area.
Because of the mountainous landscape, the Appalachian Plateau has many native plants, including Mountain Laurel, Trillium, and Azaleas.
Trillium is a plant native to mountainous areas. They usually grow close to the ground and under other plants, such as Mountain Laurel. They can be pink, white, or red. They can also have painted lines on them. Trillum is not on the endangered species list. Though, there is a type of Trillium which is endangered, Trillium Reliquum. It is not highly endangered.
Painted Trillium
Red Trillum
White Trillium
Pink Trillium
Trillium Reliquum
Mountain Laurel
Mountain Laurel is a native plant in the Appalachian Plateau. It's scientific name is Kalmia Latifolia. It grows in forests and is an evergreen shrub, although they look like trees. It is also related to the Rhodedendron and Azaleas, which are also native plants. They will grow over plants such as Trillium. They are white and look lke umbrellas.
Azaleas are probably the most well known native plant in the Appalachian Plateau. There are over 17 native species that grow in Northwest Georgia. They grow in shady areas such as forests and they bloom in the spring. They grow in clusters. They vary in color, but the most popular are a blueish purple, pink, and white.
The Appalachian Plateau is home to many different species of animals. It has thousands of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and fish.
North American
River Otter
Corn Snake
The Corn Snake is mainly nocturnal and hides during the day under cover of loose tree bark, in animal burrows, or in old abandoned buildings. The diet of an adult Corn Snake is primarily rodents and other small mammals, but it also includes birds and their eggs. The young Corn Snake will eat lizards, small snakes, frogs, and rodents. Predators of the Corn Snake include foxes, opossums, skunks, bobcats, weasels, and hawks. The Corn Snake is most active from March to November. This species is encountered more frequently in the summer months when it crosses roads at night. It prefers upland open forests of mixed pine and hardwoods, pine flatwoods, and forest edges. The Corn Snake is an able climber and can be found in the rafters or ceilings of abandoned buildings.
(Elaphe guttata)
North American
River Otter
The River Otter ranges widely along rivers, streams, swamps, and marshes. An individual otter may move from 77.2 - 96.6 km (48 - 60 mi) along a waterway in a season, but the average is from 4.8 - 16.1 km (3 - 10 mi). Throughout its home range, a River Otter has "pulling out spots" where it makes "scent posts" by gathering and piling up water-logged leaves, sticks, or aquatic plants, and marking them with feces and urine. A scent post informs other otters of the River Otter's presence, but otters do not defend territories against one another. The River Otter is an extremely intelligent animal and exhibits a high level of curiosity. When encountered along a waterway, it will stop and crane its neck to look at a human, if the person is moving slowly and is not acting in a threatening manner. Otters have a playful nature and will play both by themselves and with other otters. They will make slides on mud banks into the water and use them over time to the point where they become deep troughs. The River Otter is most active from dawn to midmorning and again in the evening. It forages for foods such as rough fish, crayfish, mollusks, crabs, amphibians, rodents, birds, eggs, and small reptiles. Contrary to popular opinion, the River Otter does not affect the quality or quantity of sport fish populations. If anything, it contributes to a healthy fish population by culling out the weak and sick individuals. The River Otter has few natural predators, but there are reports of it being preyed upon by American Alligators, Bobcats, and Coyotes. River Otters have lived for 20 years in captivity, but 5 - 7 years is the average in the wild.
Wood Frog
Wood Frogs can range from light tan to pinkish to brown, bronze, or almost black. They can be found in mountains and near lakes and rivers. They are on the endangered species list and are extremely hard to find in the Appalachian Plateau region and all throughout the US.
Carolina Wren
A Carolina Wren is a bird that is native to northwest Georgia. It lives anywhere it can put it's nest (trash can, trees, wreaths, car vents). They are small, have brown plumage, and have long, sharp, curved pointed beaks for eating insects. It weighs about 20 grams and is about 6 inches high, so it is a fairly large wren.
Blue Ridge Region
The Blue Ridge region in North Georgia is the fourth largest in the state. Elevations can soar from anywhere from 1600 feet to 4700 feet. The Blue Ridge region has an irregular landscape of mountains, ridges, lakes, and basins. The Blue Ridge mountains and Cohutta mountains make up most of the region, with the McCaysville Basin seperating them. The distinct elevations in this area cause noticeable different plant and animals in the area.
Landforms In The Blue Ridge Region
The Blue Ridge region in North Georgia is heavily forested. It includes 2 mountain chains, The Appalachian Mountains, and The Blue Ridge Mountains, the beginning of the Appalachian mountains. It also has the highest peak in Georgia, Brasstown Bald. Elevations can range from 1600 feet to 4700. It also has the highest waterfall in Georgia, Amicolola Falls.
Blue Ridge
Amicalola Falls State Park is an 829 acre (3.35 km²) Georgia state park located between Ellijay and Dahlonega in Dawsonville, Georgia. The park's name is derived from a Cherokee language word meaning "tumbling waters". The park is home to Amicalola Falls, a 729-foot (222 m) waterfall, making it the highest in Georgia.[1] It is considered to be one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Georgia. An eight-mile (13 km) trail that winds past Amicalola Falls and leads to Springer Mountain, famous for being the southern terminus of the Appalachian Trail, begins in the park. Amicalola Falls State Park also offers many hiking trails, a guest lodge, restaurant, cabins, a shelter for long distance Appalachian Trail hikers, a campground and access to the eco-friendly Len Foote Hike Inn.
Brasstown Bald is the highest mountain in Georgia, and the highest one in the deep south. It is over 4,748 feet high. On a very clear day, you can see the skyscrapers in Atlanta, but usually there will be some haze on the mountains. From the former fire lookout originally built during the Great Depression of the 1930's, you can see four states as you look out. Georgia is where you are standing, with panoramic views out to Tennessee, North Carolina and South Carolina in the distance.
The wildlife viewing in the Blue Ridge region is easy as animals are abundant and can easily be spotted, especially in the winter months. You will have a good chance of seeing bears, raccoons, deer, squirrels, numerous song birds, hummingbirds, vultures, butterflies, and so much more.
Tailed Deer
Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
Swallowtails are large, eye-catching butterflies with long tails that resemble the forked tail feathers of swallows. Brightly striped or spotted with highly contrasting colors, these butterflies are among the easiest to spot in the eastern United States. You can tell a male Swallowtail from a Female Swallowtail by the blue on the base of their wings. Females have more, while the males have none.
Ruby Throated Hummingbird
Hummingbirds have dazzling plumage and are incredibly skillful fliers. They can stop short in midair, hover like tiny helicopters, and only hummingbirds can fly backward. Their wings beat about 53 times a second, creating a low-pitched, bee-like buzzing. Their food is flower nectar and insects. You can tell female and male Ruby Throated Hummingbird's by their plumage and throat. The males have an emerald green plumage with a ruby colored throat. The female hummingbird's plumage is not as shiny and they do not have a ruby throat.
Compared To A Teacup
Water Snake
The Cottonmouth (also called the Water Moccasin) belongs to the same family as the rattlesnakes. The Cottonmouth and the Copperhead are the only members of the family in the United States that don't have rattles. If you live where these snakes are found and you like to catch snakes, learn to identify these species. Unlike other water snakes, the Cottonmouth swims with its head well out of water. Although it may be observed basking in the sun during the day, it is more active at night. It preys on amphibians, fishes, and snakes.
Tailed Deer
A century ago, deer were hunted almost to extinction in the East. When conservation laws were passed, deer populations began to grow. Over the century, many acres of farmland and pastures in the East were abandoned and grew into brushland -- the perfect deer habitat. Today there are more White-tailed Deer in the United States than when the first settlers landed. They have a reddish-brown coat in summer or a grayish-brown coat in winter. The big white tail is raised when the deer is bounding away. Bucks have antlers that curve forward.
Quick Facts!
State Bird: Brown Thrasher
State Marine Mammal: Right Whale
State Motto: Wisdom, Justice, & Moderation
Population of GA: 9,687,653
Ten Millionish people
Capital: Atlanta, GA
Major Cities:
Atlanta Augusta Savannah Columbus Macon
Athens Gainesville Albany Valdosta Warner Robins
Governor: Nathan Deal
Industries In the Blue Ridge Region
There are many industries in the Blue Ridge Region, including tourism, agriculture, and poultry.
Tourism in the Blue Ridge region is a big industry because of the mountains and culture. Helen, a German city in White county, is a prime example. It has festivals and live music throughout the year. It also has tubing on the Toccoa river, which flows through Helen.
in Helen
There are many farming businesses in the Blue Ridge region, but apples are the most well known in this region. The apple capital in the world, Ellijay, is a major producer in this industry. They export thousands of bushels a day and you can pick your own apples at their orchard.
In the 1950s Georgia companies began turning to exports to contend with overproduction and the need to sell a surplus of dark meat. They initially succeeded in Germany, but after a disastrous trade war, integrators turned to Latin America, Asia, and the Middle East. Later, Georgia companies began exporting to the former Soviet Union and China. By 2011 Georgia exported poultry worth more than $308 million annually, more than any other state.
Notable Landmarks and Cities
University Of Georgia
Founded in 1785, the oldest college in the US was founded in Athens, Georgia. This college is located in Clarke County and is also in the Blue Ridge Region. It has over 17 departments and hundreds of things to major in. It is praised for it's Veternarian Sciences, Law, Business, and Arts and Music schools and programs. It also has an excellent athletics association, featuring football, gymnastics, tennis, softball, baseball, equestrian, and much, much, much more!
In 1828 Dahlonega was the site of the first major gold rush in the United States. The Dahlonega Gold Museum Historic Site sits in the middle of the town square, housed in the old Lumpkin County Courthouse built in 1836. From its steps in 1849, Dahlonega Mint assayor Dr. M. F. Stephenson tried to persuade miners to stay in Dahlonega instead of joining the California Gold Rush, saying, "There's gold in them thar hills." Corey Smith wrote a song about the town of Dahlonega. It is also home to North Georgia College and Wahsega 4-H Center.
Notable Citizens:
Bill Elliot, Nascar Driver
Zac Brown, Lead singer of Zac Brown Band
Zell Miller, GA Governor
Brian McCann, Braves Player
Bill Berry, Lead singer of REM
Ridge And Valley
The Ridge and Valley region is located in the northwest corner of Georgia. It includes most of the northwest part of the state.
The plants in the Ridge and Valley region vary based on the area. Moisture (Water in the air and in the ground), the soil type, and the elevation. Some common plants in the area are Coral Bell, Sugar Maple, and Climbing Hydrangea.
There are many different species of animals in the Ridge and Valley region. It is a great place for bird and butterfly watchers. Species in this area include the Cardinal, Warblers, Red Tailed Hawks, Aphrodite Fritillary, and the Northern Metalmark.
Industries In This Region
One of the largest industries that makes up this region's economy is industry and manufacturing. Almost half of the economy is made by making machinery, 33% is made by plastics and rubber, and 23% is made by transportation equipment.
Soil Type
This region includes igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary geology; the main types of rocks in the area are gneiss, slate and saprolite. The soils of the Ridge And Valley are mostly loamy or clayey Ultiso.
Notable Cities and Citizens
Sequoyah, devolped the Cherokee Language.
Dale Willis, MLB Player for Kansas City.
Marcus Dixon, professional football player.
Canton, Georgia
Calhoun, Georgia
Piedmont Region
The Piedmont region is the second largest region in Georgia.The Piedmont Region begins in the mountain foothills of northern Georgia and goes to the central part of the state. It is about 1400 kilometers long and 300 to 400 kilometers wide.
The flora in the Piedmont region varies greatly. Tempature, elevation, and population of other things around them has a great deal to do with what grows there.
The fauna of the Piedmont region varies mostly because of the dense population of this area, but there are still native species. The most widely known animals are the Great Horned Owl, the Red Fox, and the Timber Rattlesnake.
The Great Horned Owl is the largest owl of the southern United States. Their "horns" are tufts of feathers. They lives in wooded areas. They are nocturnal. They eats small mammals (especially rabbits and rodents), birds, some fish and insects .
Red Fox
Red foxes are solitary hunters who feed on rodents, rabbits, birds, and other small game. They usually live in small wooded areas but have been seen crossing roads in the suburbs of Atlanta. A fox was even caught in the Atlanta Stadiu, Red Foxes are the largest species of true foxes. They are red with a grayish black tail, black stockings, and weigh anywhere between 6 and 30 pounds.
The Timber Rattlesnake is a venomous pit viper found in most of Georgia. Timber Rattlesnakes typically live in a cool, decidious forest with a r rugged terrain. Although still fairly common in some local areas, the timber rattlesnake has been extirpated or greatly reduced in numbers in most areas where it was once numerous due to unregulated collection and indiscriminate killing. A contributing factor was the bounty system under which a reward was paid for each timber rattler killed. Bounties were outlawed in Georgia in 1971. Timber Rattlesnakes can be black, tan, yellowish, or gray, with a Chevron pattern in brown or black, depending on their base color. They can be fat, but they are only about four feet long, but they can grow to six feet.
In the Piedmont Region
The Piedmont region in Georgia has many industries. These include:
Granite - Elberton, a city in Elberton County, GA, is known as the granite capital in the world. Currently, there are more than 50 quarries in this region for mining Granite. The granite for the Lincoln Memorial is used for this region.
Tourism - Tourism is very popular in this region because of the large cities and attractions. Some of these attractions include The Georgia Aquarium, Stone Mountain, and The Coca-Cola Museum.
The Chattahoochee River begins as a spring in the fittingly name "Chattahoochee Gap," little more than a trickle of water at 3200 feet. Over the first 100 miles the river falls almost 2400 feet, forms a major Southeast lake (Lanier) and provides water and electricity for millions of Georgians. The Chattahoochee is also a major source of recreation. Fishing, tubing, canoeing, boating, hiking and camping on its banks, shores, and in its watershed are all popular activities.
Notable Cities
Zach McLeroy and Tony Townley, Founders of Zaxbys
Mark Richt, football coach at UGA.
Tyler Perry, actor and comedian
Ciara, singer and dancer
Cee Lo Green, singer and rapper
Atlanta - Atlanta is the largest city in Georgia. It has a population 420,003, the third largest in the Southeastern US, and the ninth largest in the US. The mayor of Atlanta is Kasim Reed. Atlanta has several suburbs and surronding neighborhoods, including Midtown, Downtown, and Buckhead.
The Coastal Plain of Georgia is the largest region out of the five regions. It starts at the fall line, which seperates it from the Piedmont region, and continues to the bottom of Georgia. The elevation of this area varies between the upper and lower coastal plains, but It's elevation generally ranges from sea level to 225 m (750 ft).
Because of the low elevation and dramatic change climate of this region, the Coastal Plains allow for many different species than the other regions. Some of these animals include the Armadillo, the Eastern Coral Snake, and the Slider Turtle.
The native plants of this region vary between the upper and lower coastal plains, but the majority of the plants are the same. Some common plants in this area are the Bald Cypress and the American Snowbell.
in the
Industries in the Coastal Plain vary between the upper and lower region, but there is one king industry: Agriculture. Peaches, Peanuts, Pecans, Almonds, and Cotton are all popular plants grown in this region. Georgia is a leading producer in cotton, though, the state of GA usually accounts for 27% of the countries exports.
St. Marys River
The Saint Marys River is a 447 mile long river in Georgia. It has three prongs between Southeast Georgia and Northeast Florida. The water in the Saint Marys River is black, but there is not much lose sediment. However, the overall water quality is good, but there are more polluted parts in the .very south of Georgia. It is used for electricity and recreational uses. It also forms the border between Florida And Georgia.
Okefenokee Swamp
The Okefenokee Swamp is an area of land that covers more than 600 square miles. It is located in Waycross, GA. The swamp has four features- the prairies, the houses and hammocks, the lakes, and the islands. The prairies are parts of the swamp that are open. The houses and hammocks are scattered throughout the swamp. Early settlers in the swamp noticed small clusters of trees and underbrush scattered throughout the swamp. They called these clusters "houses and hammocks." There are many lakes scattered throughout the Okefenokee. Sixty of these lakes are big enough to be named. There are around seventy islands in the Okefenokee. Some of the most well known and visited islands are Chesser Island and Cowhouse Island.
Fall Line
The boundary between the Piedmont and Coastal Plain is the Fall Line. This is where the elevation drops off to very low altitudes, usually about 250 to 300 ft above sea level. It's called the Fall Line because the first falls or rapids in rivers that one encounters as one comes inland from the ocean are usally found at this boundary, as the streams drop off the Piedmont and onto the Coastal Plain.
The Barrier Islands in Georgia are proctective islands that protect the coast from being eroded. There are 12barrier islands in Georgia. They all are about 15 miles off the shore. These islands are very popular for tourism because of the beautiful beaches, historic homesites, and rare wildlife.
Notable Cities
Juliette Gordon Low - Founder of Girls Scouts
Paula Deen, chef
Big Boi, rapper in Grammy winning group Outkast
Savannah, GA -Savannah was established in 1733 and was the first colonial and state capital of Georgia. It is known as America's first planned city and attracts millions of visitors who enjoy the city's architecture and historic structures. It is also home to the famous River Street, one of the oldest streets in Savannah. River Street is on the Savannah River and has many shops, street performers, and lots of culture.
The flora of this region is much like the Ridge and Valley and Appalachian Plateau. Most plants will be hardy to cold tempertures and hot weather. They will also be semi-tolerable to heat.
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