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Transcript of Industrial Revolution
Factory: Large buildings in which machinery is used to manufacture goods.
Factors of Production: The resources needed to produce goods and services.
Crop Rotation: The system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land.
Entrepreneur: A Person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risk of a business. SECTION 1 VOCABULARY Industrialization in other Parts of Europe The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of goods made by machinery, which began in England around the 1700s. Before the revolution people did things like weaving textiles by hand, until machines came and began to take their jobs. The Industrial Revolution spread from England to Europe and North America. SECTION 3 VOCABULARY Industrialization in France
In France, industrial growth occurred after 1830. French industrialization was more controlled than in other countries because of the strong the agricultural economy. France avoided the great social and economic problems caused by industrialization. A national market for new French products was created after 1850, when the government began railroad construction. •Stock: Certain rights of ownership that entrepreneurs sell to raise money to build and support large businesses.
•Corporation: A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts.
•Imperialism: The policy of extending one country’s rule over many other lands.
A Lancashire carpenter named William Cockerill illegally made his way to Belgium in 1799. With him he had secret plans for building spinning machinery. His son John, built an enormous industrial enterprise in eastern Belgium. It produced a variety of mechanical equipment, including steam engines and railway locomotives. This helped Belgium advance, and gave them hope of closing the gaping hole of advancement between them and Britain. INDUSTRIALIZATION IN BELGIUM In the 1800’s Germany was greatly divided, and their industrial section developed in almost isolated regions. However Germany found a way to use this to their advantage. Germany built railroads that linked its growing manufacturing cities such as Frankfurt, with the Ruhr Valley’s coal and iron ore deposits. However the surge of industrialization did not stop there. Germany imported British equipment and engineers and German manufacturers sent their children to England to learn industrial management. Germany’s economic strength spurred its ability to develop as a military power. By the late 1800s, a unified, imperial Germany had become both an industrial and a military giant. INDUSTRIALIZATION IN GERMANY At the same time industrialization was spreading to other European countries:
•Bohemia developed a spinning industry.
•Spain’s Catalonia processed more cotton than Belgium.
•Northern Italy mechanized its textile production, specializing in silk spinning.
•Serf labor ran factories in regions around Moscow and St. Petersburg. Effects of Industrialization
While the Industrialization was beneficial for the countries it took root in, it increased competition between industrialized nations and poverty in less-developed nations. Although it strengthened their economic ties, Industrialization widened the wealth gap between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries.
Industrialized countries required a steady supply of raw materials to keep their factories running and their workers fed. They turned to less-developed lands to fulfill these needs. Britain led in exploiting its overseas colonies for resources and markets. Soon other European countries, the United States, Russia, and Japan followed Britain’s lead, and seized and imperialized colonies for economic resources. Imperialism was born through the process of exploiting countries for the goods they possessed in order to accommodate the demands of industrialization.
Industrialization gave Europe tremendous economic power. Industrialization revolutionized every aspect of society, from daily life, to life expectancy. Population, health, and wealth eventually rose dramatically in all industrialized countries. The development of a middle class created great opportunities for education and democratic participation. Greater democratic participation fueled a powerful movement for social reform. WHY DID THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGIN IN ENGLAND? 1818-1883
Karl Marx was a German journalist who showed the world a different type of socialism called Marxism.He worked with Friedrich Engels and made a 23- page pamphlet called The Communist Manifesto.
The pamphlet talked about society. It argued that human societies were always divided to different classes where the wealthy controlled producing goods, and poor people performed hard labor under horrible conditions.
Marx and Friedrich Engels believed that the Industrial Revolution helped the wealthy and made the poor more poor. They also believed that the capitalist system would soon destroy itself and that factories would drive smaller business out of business , leaving a smaller amount of people in control of the money.
He thought that after some time, the large amount of people in the lower class would revolt and capture factories and mills from the capitalists. His pamphlets started revolts in Europe during 1848 and 1849. He inspired revolutionaries such as Russia’s Lenin, China’s Mao Zedang and Cuba’s Fidel Castro. Industrialization started in Britain but spread to the United States for three reasons.
1)During the war of 1812 Britain’s blockade caused the United States to become independent and build its own industries.
2) A young British mill worker named Samuel Slater emigrated to the United States. There, Slater built a spinning machine from memory and a partial design.
3)In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell of Boston and four other investors revolutionized the American textile industry by mechanizing every stage in the manufacturing of cloth.
By the late 1820’s young girls rushed to work in the textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts.
Textiles led the way, but clothing manufacture and shoe making also underwent mechanization. Especially in the Northeast, skilled workers and farmers had formerly worked at home. Now they labored in factories in towns and cities such as Waltham, Lowell, and Lawrence, Massachusetts.
The railroad system also played a major role in helping the spread of industrialization in the United States. By the 1890’s the railroad system extended all the way across the U.S. adding up to a total of 208, 152 miles. INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES Laissez Faire: An economic policy of letting owners of industries and businesses set working conditions without interference, (“ let do” / “let people do as they please”)
Capitalism: An economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make profit.
Utilitarianism: The people should judge ideas institutions, and actions on the basis of their utilities, usefulness.
Communism: A form of complete socialism in which the means of production- all factory and business means will be owned by the people. The Industrial Revolution began in England because, in addition to the large population of workers, the small island country had extensive natural resources which were needed for Industrialization.
These resources included:
Harbors where merchant ships set sail.
Rivers for interior transportation.
Water power, coal and iron ore were the three most important resources because they were needed to build and fuel machines that paved the way for The Industrial Revolution.
Other than resources, Britain's growing economy and political stability also contributed to the country's industrialization. Business people invested in new inventions, and Britain's banking system also contributed to the country's industrialization. Because of bank loans people were able to get money for any new inventions or projects they had. British Parliament also passed laws to help encourage and protect business ventures. Britain had all the factors of production that the Industrial Revolution called for. Laissez Faire economics was stemmed from French economic/enlightenment philosophers who believed that wealth was obtained by placing heavy tariffs on foreign goods, and their belief that government regulations only interfered with money making. Laissez Faire was created by Adam Smith who made it as a set structure of laws that said:
1.Law of self-interest: People work for their own good
2.Law of competition: Competition forces people to make better products.
3.Law of Supply and Demand: Enough goods would be produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand in a market economy. Laissez Faire • Adam Smiths’ ideas were supported by British economists Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo. Together they created the concept of laissez faire capitalism.
• Thomas theorized that since the population was growing faster than the food supply, without war and epidemics, people would be destined to be poor and miserable.
• David Ricardo took Thomas Malthus's theory and said that the poor will remain poor and as workers increase and resources decrease, wages will decrease. The Economics of Capitalism Theorist that oppose supporters of laissez faire and their belief of no government interference, Utilitarians, believed that the government should try to promote the greatest number of people.
John Stuart Mill, an economist, philosopher and utilitarian, questioned un-regulated capitalism and believed that workers should lead deprived lives that sometimes bordered starvation. Utilitarians believed in and pushed for reforms in prison systems and education. The Rise of Socialism Utopian Ideas A British working factory saw the bad working conditions for workers and created their own reforms by making better conditions and prohibiting under-aged workers and instead gave them free schooling. Socialist Economy In a socialist economy the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all. (Charles Fouier and Saint- Simon (French)). Ideas for socialism came from an optimistic view of human nature, a belief in progress and a concern for social injustice. Socialist argued that the government should plan the economy rather than a capitalist economist structure. In a communist economy, businesses follow their own self- interest through marketing and low prices to beat their competitors. Likewise, consumers compete to buy goods at the lowest prices. This competition shapes the market by affecting what businesses are able to sell. Business owners thought that the government should not interfere in the economy because competition creates efficient business. Communist Economy SECTION 2 VOCABULARY •Urbanization: City building and the movement of people to cities.
•Middle Class: A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers. RESULTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1. People flocked to British cities and towns during The Industrial Revolution because of the growth of the factory system, where the manufacturing of goods was concentrated in a central location. The growth of these factory systems caused more jobs to be available to people.
2. The middle class expanded as a result of the revolution.
3. There were negative effects of the rapid growth in Manchester. Since England’s cities (including Manchester) grew so rapidly, it had no development plan, sanitary codes, or building codes. IT lacked adequate housing, education, and police protection for people who poured from the countryside to seek jobs. Industries created many new jobs for people. However factories were dirty, unsafe, and dangerous. Factory workers were kept under strict management as factory bosses exercised harsh discipline. • Factory workers were overworked and underpaid.
• Overseers and skilled workers made up the lower middle class. Factory owners and
merchants formed the upper middle class.
•Resentment grew between the upper class and the middle class because the upper class resented those in middle class who became wealthier than they were. Working conditions Social classes Size of cities Factories brought job seekers to the cities. As a result urban areas doubled, tripled, and even quadrupled in size. Because of the increase in size of the urban areas many cities began individually specializing in certain industries. Living Conditions The Industrial Revolution created jobs for workers, contributed to the wealth of the nation, fostered technological progress and invention, greatly increased the production of goods and raised the standard of living.
The Industrial Revolution also promoted healthier diets, better housing, and cheaper, mass-produced clothing. Educational opportunities were expanded because the Industrial Revolution created a demand for engineers as well as clerical and professional workers.
the Industrial Revolution drove workers to form labor unions in order to protect themselves. As a result of the labor unions, workers won higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions. Effects of the Industrial
Revolution Then Today in industrialized countries, people can afford consumer goods that would have been considered luxuries 50 or 60 years ago. Their living and working conditions are much better than those of the workers in the 19th century. Local, state, and federal governments have invested in urban improvements and raised the standard of living of most city dwellers due to the profits derived from industrialization produced tax revenues. Effects of the Industrial
Revolution Today LABOR UNIONS AND REFORM LAWS. At first the British denied the formation of Unions and made Acts in 1799 and 1800 to keep them from forming. Yet in 1824 an Act was passed that repealed those and after 1825 unions were allowed. The U.S had many skilled workers and by 1886 several unions joined together to form the head union organization called the AFL (American Federation of Labor). The AFL and political leaders later pushed for reform laws that followed the abuses caused by the Industrial Revolution.
In the 1820s – 1830s Parliament began investigating child labor and working conditions in factories and mines.
1. The Factory Act of 1833: Made it illegal for child labor under nine years old. Children from nine to twelve could not work more than eight hours a day. The young children from the age of thirteen to seventeen could not work more than twelve hours.
2. The Mines Act of 1842: Prevented women and children from working underground.
3. The House Act of 1847: Limited the work day to 10hrs for women and children who worked in factories.
In 1904 the National Child Labor Committee was made to put an end to child labor, in doing so they argued that child labor lowered wages for all workers leading union members to join the reformers and together they pressured the government to ban child labor and set a working hour caps.
In 1919, the U.S. Supreme Court objected to a federal child laboring law, ruling that it interfered with states’ rights to regulate labor. However, individual states were allowed to limit the working hours of women, and later of men.
The same impulse that led to the reform along with the ideals of the French Revolution, led to the fight for the end of slavery and the promotion of new rights for women and children.
Slavery: William Wilberforce (religious man and parliament member) led the fight for abolition of slavery in the British Empire.This led to a bill that ended slave trade in the British West Indies in 1807. After his retirement in 1825, he continued his fight to free slaves eliminating slavery in the British Empire in 1833. British antislavery activists had mixed motives. Some like Wilberforce were morally against slavery while others viewed it as an economic threat. However, a new class of industrialist developed that supported cheap labor over slave labor.
In the United States the movement to fulfill the promise of the Declaration of Independence by ending slavery grew in the early 1800s.
These movements led to:
1. The civil war that ended the enslavement of all African Americans in 1865.
2. Slavery persisted into the Americas only; and slavery in Puerto Rico ended in 1873 and Spain abolished it in Cuba in 1886 and it was not until 1888 when Brazil won its freedom.
Women: While the Industrial Revolution held many mixed blessings for women offering them higher wages but meanwhile, they still received 1/3 less than men doing the same job as them. Women were not satisfied so during the mid-1800s they led reform movements to address their working issues as well as social issues. For example, women formed unions in the trades where they dominated. In Britain, some women served as safety inspectors in factories where other women worked. In the United States, college-educated women like Jane Addams ran settlement houses. These community centers served the poor residents of slum neighborhoods. In the U.S and Britain women pushed for the abolition of slavery and wondered why their own rights should be denied. They began their own rights movement in 1848 and women activists formed and joined the International Council for Women in 1888. Delegates from 27 countries attended the council’s meeting in 1899. THE REFORM MOVEMENT SPREADS. As a result of the rise in population there was a decrease in the quality of living conditions. Cities lacked sanitary codes or building controls. Housing, water and social services were scarce and various epidemics swept through the city. REFORMS SPREAD TO MANY AREAS OF LIFE In the U.S and Western Europe, reformers attempted to correct the issues in newly industrialized nations and public education. Prison reform ranked high on the reformers’ list. The most important of these reformers was named Horace Mann who favored free public education for all children and spent his childhood working in child labor and warned “ If we don’t prepare children to become good citizens… if we don’t enrich their minds with knowledge, then our republic must go down to destruction”. This led to the formation of many public schools in the 1850s and this became available in Europe in the late 1800s. In 1831 a French writer named Alexis de Tocqueville contrasted the brutal conditions in American prisons to the “extended liberty” of American society. Those who sought to reform prisons emphasized the goal of providing prisoners with the means to lead to useful lives upon release. During the 1800s democracy spread to industrialized countries as foreign expansion increases. Even so, the industrialized democracies faced new challenges both at home and abroad. IMPROVEMENTS IN TRANSPORTATION. The progress with the textile industry gave way to other industrial improvements like the steam engine which miners used to remove water from deep mine shafts. However the engine took up too much fuel and was much of an expense.
In 1765, James Watt a mathematical instrument maker found a way to work the steam engine faster and more efficiently without burning as much fuel. In 1774 Watts joined a businessman named Matthew Boulton, who was an entrepreneur. Matthew paid Watts a salary and boosted him to build better engines. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Aim: What was the industrial revolution, how did it start and how did it change the world? THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION REVIEW QUESTIONS. What were the four natural resources needed for British industrialization?
What were the living conditions like in Britain during industrialization?
What might explain the rise of global inequality during the Industrial Revolution?
What were the two warring classes that Marx and Engels outlined in The Communist Manifesto?
How did women fight for change during the Industrial Revolution THE RAILWAY AGE BEGINS New inventions and development of factories
Rapidly growing industries in the 1800s
Increased production and higher demand for raw materials
Growth of worldwide trade
Population explosion and expanding labor force
Exploitation of mineral resources
Highly developed banking and investment system
Advances in transportation, agriculture, and communication Increase in population of cities
Lack of city planning
Loss of family stability
Expansion of middle class
Harsh conditions for laborers, including children
Workers’ progress versus laissez-faire economic attitudes
Improved standard of living
Creation of new jobs
Encouragement of technological progress THE SOCIAL EFFECTS OF THE
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Child labor laws to end abuses
Reformers urging equal distribution of wealth
Trade unions formed
Social reform movements, such as utilitarianism, utopianism, socialism, and Marxism
Reform bills in Parliament and Congress THE POLITICAL EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION INVENTIONS SPUR INDUSTRIALIZATION The first industry to be transformed was the textile industry. Britain's textile industry clothed the world in wool, linen, and cotton. In 1733 a machinist named John Kay invented a flying shuttle, which speedily carried threads of yarn back and fourth, when the weaver pulled a handle on the loom. The flying shuttle increased the productivity of weavers. Spinners could not keep up with the speed of weavers,as a result there was a cash prize for who could produce the the best spinning machine. In 1764 a textile worker named James Hargreaves invented a spinning wheel. His spinning wheel named jenny, allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a time. By 1769, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame which drove spinning wheels so people did not have to work it by hand anymore. Then in 1779, Samuel Crompton made the spinning mule, by combining the water frame and the spinning jenny. The spinning mule made thread thinner, stronger, and was more consistent than earlier spinning machines. In 1787, Edmund Cartwright made the power loom which helped speed up weaving. These machines took weaving out of the house and into buildings called factories where wealthy textile merchants set up the machines. Do Now:
What do you think this picture is showing? In 1804, an English engineer named Richard Trevithick won a bet by hauling ten tons of iron over nearly ten miles of track in a steam-driven locomotive. After this, many British engineers built improved versions of Trevitick's locomotive. One engineer named George Stephenson gained a solid reputation by building about 20 engines for miners in northern England. In 1821 George started to build the first railroad line. The line was 27 miles long and opened in 1825. The news of the railroad spread and the entrepreneurs of northern England wanted a railroad connecting Liverpool and Manchester. In 1829, a competition was held to to see which locomotive was the best, yet none of them were better than Stephenson and his son's locomotive. The Liverpool-Manchester Railway opened in 1830 hauling 13 tons at a speed of more than 24 miles per hour.
The railroad was a success and had four major effects:
It urged industrial growth by giving manufactures cheaper ways to import and export goods.
The railroad created many new jobs for railroad workers and miners.
It boosted England's agriculture and fishing industries.
Railroads urged people to take distant city jobs and attracted people to countryside resorts.