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Transcript of DOCUMENTARY FILM
The two concepts that have permitted the spectacular growth of video webs are:
Revelation: they can see for the first time lots of things that people have done around the world.
Motivation: people are motivated to do special and shocking things because doing so, they will receive thousand of visits. Social networks have also change the way in which television advertising develops. Lots of companies have decided to change their marketing plan a center their efforts in social networks in order to increase sales. In that way, social networks are the new television: they are the new entity that tell us what we like and what we should by or consume. TV SERIES In United States and in the rest of the world, every year o every couple of years, the TV series used to be related to a similar topic in every season. That's it: If a TV series was related to a police department diary work, in the same season almost every TV series had the same topic.
Now we are in a different trend: diversity has come to our television and now we have more series and everyone related to a different topic. TV series are an important part of our history and I believe that analyze some of them would be very interesting. Let's make a deeper analysis of the spanish Tv series. LEGAL ETHICS Documentary filmmakers are finding themselves facing not only economic pressure but also close scrutiny for the ethics of their practices.
Filmmakers were drawn into criticism of their peers, while lacking common standards of reference.
Filmmakers also face pressure to inflate drama or character conflict and to create drama where no natural drama exist in order to gain audience and they may be encouraged to alter the story to pump up the excitement, the conflict, or the danger and it does not necessarily represents a lack of ethic.
There exists an invisible line that separates the ethic work from the non-ethic work but, who places this line? And where it should be placed? Copyright Law of the United States of America, that gives a restrictive definition of visual art: A “work of visual art” is — (1) a painting, drawing, print or sculpture, existing in a single copy, in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author, or, in the case of a sculpture, in multiple cast, carved, or fabricated sculptures of 200 or fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author; or
(2) a still photographic image produced for exhibition purposes only, existing in a single copy that is signed by the author, or in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author.
A work of visual art does not include — (A)(i) any poster, map, globe, chart, technical drawing, diagram, model, applied art, motion picture or other audiovisual work, book, magazine, newspaper, periodical, data base, electronic information service, electronic publication, or similar publication; (ii) any merchandising item or advertising, promotional, descriptive, covering, or packaging material or container; (iii) any portion or part of any item described in clause (i) or (ii); (B) any work made for hire; or (C) any work not subject to copyright protection under this title. The script of a documentary film is one of the most important parts of it. And another fundamental part of the documentary film working is the research work, as important as the shooting part: The heart of any successfully documentary is making a good research. You have to know as much as you can about the topic you are going to cover. A critical thought about the characters, stories, archive, locations and visual style is required in order to make a documentary as much accurate as possible. False statements as a consequence of the lack of knowledge will, for sure, discredit all the documentary, even if the rest of the information is completely truth. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION In order to find good sources, is advisable to used the criteria formulated by Scott in 1990. The criteria used is: Meaning refers to whether the evidence is clear and comprehensible. Authenticity, that refers to whether the evidence is genuine and from impeccable sources or not Credibility, that refers to whether the evidence is free from error and distortion Representativeness refers to whether the documents consulted are representative of the totality of the relevant documents DOCUMENTARY AND ARTS Visual culture Is a field of study that generally includes some combination of cultural studies, art history, critical theory, philosophy, and anthropology, by focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images. Ex: John Berger (Ways of Seeing, 1972) and Laura Mulvey (Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1975)
The major work on this discipline has been done by W. J. T. Mitchell, particularly in his books "Iconology" and "Picture Theory" Visual sociology Visual sociology is an area of sociology concerned with the visual dimensions of social life. It tends to be concerned with photography and documentary filmmaking within a sociological context, but includes the study of all kinds of visual material and the visual social world.
There are three approaches to doing visual sociology:
_ Data collection using cameras and other recording technology
_ Studying visual data produced by cultures
_ Communication with images and media other than words (combination of the two previous approaches) Visual arts The visual arts are art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, printmaking, modern visual arts (photography, video, and film making), design and crafts. Film making is one of the important parts of visual arts. Many artistic disciplines such as performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts also involve aspects of the visual arts. the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art are included also disciplines of visual arts. Animated documentary The animated documentary is a genre of film which combines the genres of animation and documentary. The first example is "The Sinking of the Lusitania", by Windsor McKay in 1918.
Since the 1920s, animation has been used in educational and social guidance films. An example of this is the Walt Disney's film "Our Friend the Atom" in 1957. An this is the use that we actually know of the animation documentaries, but modern documentaries are related to a very wide range of topics. The term docufiction was coined at the beginning of the 21st century. It is a genre which consists on a cinematographic combination of documentary and fiction. This term is also used in reference to literary journalism. Docudrama is often used indistinctively to docufiction. Nevertheless, drama and fiction should not be confused, and this term is more accurate to describe dramatization of facts within a documentary, for example.
Robert Flaherty (Moana 1926) and Jean Rouch (La Pyramide Humaine 1958) can be considered the precursors of this hybrid genre in the 20th century. The latter is also known for the development of a subgenre called ethnofiction in the field of anthropology. DOCUMENTARY AND CINEMA Docufiction Reality film or reality movie describes a genre of films that have resulted from reality television. It consists of a pre-determined situation which is staged or created, often with the use of non-professional actors, and then the "reality" of what happens is filmed. One of its characteristics is its low budget. Ex: "Chelsea Girls" by Andy Warhol (1996).
Reality films are by no means a documentary. Everything that happens is real, but you are only seeing what the producers want you to see, in the order they want you to see it. Jackass is a great modern example of a reality film. Reality film Political cinema It refers to political films which do not hide their political inclinations. This does not mean that they are necessarily pure propaganda. They ere different from the rest of documentaries because they freely show their political inclination, instead of hiding it, as the rest of documentaries do. Political cinema can be made by two forms: in a radical way, breaking with all the stereotypes or it can also be made following the steps of the mainstream media, in order to get more audience. The first political film is "The Birth of a Nation", made by D. W. Griffith in 1915.
One of the most important is the film "Triumph des Willens" (Triumph of the Will) of Leni Riefenstahl in 1935. In this case, as we have seen before, it is a propagandist film. DOCUMENTARY AND NEW MEDIA Documentary-makers are showing interest in the present moment and how new media tools can be used to initiate formation of new communities, conversations, and ways of being together. Conventions in documentary and genres are reshaped by emerging media environments, content, devices and uses for those devices.This makes documentary practice more dynamic. Emerging media are greatly affected by their political, economic, and cultural contexts. Now, we are witnesses of a technological revolution. New devices are created almost every month, and the same happen in the previous periods of documentary history. Every technological advance, supposed a revolution in the way of making documentary and the filmmakers had to adapt their knowledge to the new technique. New media is reshaping the way in which filmmakers do their job. And the new portable technology has made possible for an uncountable number of people to engage in citizen journalism and "documentary practices." Additionally, Web 2.0 platforms such as video and photo-sharing websites and blogs are enabling amateur "documentarians" to share and collaborate on content in ways never before possible. An example of the influence of new media in the documentary film is "Awesome; I F***n' Shot That!", directed by Adam Yauch, and which is a documentary of a Beastie Boys concert made by 50 fans who attended that concert. New media is changing every aspect f our lives, and of course, the journalism is one of these aspects affected. With the developing of social networks such as Facebook, an especially Twitter, everyone can be a journalist. Everyone who has a mobile device with a decent camera can make a live report and this has changed completely they way of making journalism. But, as in the real life,you have to be surrounded (you should follow) smart people that can give you a proper information and an interesting feedback.
New media developing allows individuals to develop and spread ideas about their passions, and very often this information is more reliable than the information published in a traditional media. With the development of new media there is a fight between printed media and social media arose.
A simple 140-character “tweet” or 2-minute YouTube video clip can inform the people of events in countries all over the world. Everyone can be an occasional journalist.
the main difference between the two forms of making journalism is that with social media there are no expectations for the person to be impartial, while in the printed media the writers are supposed to be as impartial as possible, since everybody knows that the complete objectivity does not exists.
With social media there is always people witness events and posting live tweets of the event.
But the main reason why there are still journalists that work in printed media and that have their degrees in journalism is that once journalists take the information at hand they should give validity to it through research and this is a function that amateurs journalists could not develop. In the Golden Age of TVE (second half of 60s), the most important series were produced in the U.S and they were: "Los Intocables", "Los Vengadores" and "El Fugitivo" In 1966 begun the regular emissions of the second channel of RTVE. The most important TV series broadcast in this channel were: "Cuentos y Leyendas", "Los Libros" and "Los Pintores del Prado".
Pedagogic TV series such as "Fiesta" and "Rito" were also emitted. In the Spanish Transition, a pedagogic politic of the new democratic values is developed through the TV series. Some examples of these series are: "Curro Jiménez, "Cañas y Barro", "Fortunata y Jacinta" and, the most important, "Verano azul" In the 80s, the TV series were devoted to an international quality. They could be TV series of social history (La Huella del Crimen), TV series as a reflection (Anillos de Oro) or they could be series about the determinant acts that create a favorable atmosphere for the Civil War (La Plaza del Diamante or La forja de un rebelde). In the last decade, RTVE is characterized for emitting self- produced TV series, such as "Cuéntame Como Pasó", "Águila Roja" or the most recent big production "Isabel" It was the first private station to go for own production of fiction sitcoms and achieved great success with the TV series "Farmacia de Guardia" (Antonio Mercero, 1991-1995), which became the most watched Tv series in Spain. Another TV series of that time were: "Lleno por favor", "Quien da la vez", "Manos a la obra" or "Compañeros". In 1992 Antena 3 bought the allowances to the Twentieth Century Fox and, in 1994 they started to emit "The Simpsons", the flagship TV series of the channel. In the period between 1998 and 2001, Antena 3 reaches high rates of audience in the broadcasting of the famous TV series "Manos a la Obra", which has a great success and quickly became another flagship of the channel In September 2003, the channel begin to emit "Aquí no hay quién viva", which soon reached a high rates of audience and became the second most watched TV series, behind "Farmacia de Guardia" The sitcom presented a building with 6 flats inhabited by hilarious characters that was constantly making jokes of every daily situation and trying to make their neighbors life as complicated as possible. Telecinco has always looked for the highest number of audience and it has succeeded thanks to TV series such as: ”Médico de Familia”, “Periodistas”, “El Comisario”,” Al salir de clase”, “Siete Vidas”, “Aída” or "Los Serrano". Another very important sitcom was "Los Hombres de Paco" The most recent success of Telecinco is "La Que Se Avecina", inspired in "Aqui no hay quien viva", even having an important part of its actors. Ethnofiction is a subgenre of the genre docufiction which merges documentary and fiction. The term ethnoficiton is used to designate ethnographical productions. The precursor of this current is Jean Rouch, and one of its main characteristics is that the camera shares and participates from the reality that is shown. Actors are regarded as a crucial tool during the ethnographic research.
Since the 60s several Portuguese productions constituted a reference for the genre, focusing mainly on the ethnic background of the colonialism (e.g. productions focused in Africa), and covering topics such as music, life conditions or sexual life (e.g. Brasil). "Acto da Primavera"by Manoel de Oliveira in 1962. Ethnofiction SOURCES Spanish Ministry of culture website: http://recursos.cnice.mec.es/media/television/bloque2/pag10.html Filmaffinity.com Every Aula Global Document http://rtvetecuenta.blogia.com/temas/historia-de-rtve.php Irene Acosta Plata