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Don Hoffmann, "Forces that influence Curriculum"
Transcript of Don Hoffmann, "Forces that influence Curriculum"
John D. McNeil Teacher designs, defines, shapes, & implements Is influenced by State Standards Students Parents Principals School Board District Office Higher Learning Materials Learning styles Peers Time Community standards Unions Textbooks Equipment Instructional materials Standardized tests Research Culture Teacher Organizations Instructional style Personal Education Years of experience Politics Economy Physical Environment Professional Development Influences Unions Students Peers Politics Instructional materials Classroom Enviroment Principals Parents Community Specialists Psychologists Critical questions Time spent on each subject School Budget How much influence does each of these have?
Would you teach the same curriculum to different students, in different social economic settings, or in different geopolitical environments?
If money was not an issue, what resource would have the most beneficial effect on the student?
If all the variables were the same except the teacher – how much would that affect the outcome? Students the ultimate stakeholder influenced by Teachers Principal School Standards Social economic status Social forces Materials available Class size Classroom structure Personal goals Cultural background Motivation Learning style Disabilities Peers influences Home life Standardized tests Peers Teacher Classroom environment Social forces Critical questions Budget How much influence does a student have over what is taught?
If students were given more autonomy on what they are taught, how would that align with the other stakeholders?
What is the ultimate goal here – individual growth and enrichment, transmission of subject matter, or preparation for life in the community? School includes the building, staff,
and geophysical location Is influenced by Geophysical location Support staff Administration Teachers PTA Fiscal responsibilities Community Infrastructure School Boards State standards Federal mandates Competition Influences Students Teachers Learning environment Critical questions Local businesses Could the needs of the school suppress the needs of the students?
Are all problems of the school fixed by pumping money into it? Community people who reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage. Is influenced by Socioeconomic status Cultural Values Ethnicity Businesses Tax base Expectations Civic organizations Social services Investments Influences Schools Teachers School Boards Principals Students Parents Institutes of Higher Learning Critical questions: If the education system was run by the federal government instead of the state and local governments, would the community lose its influence?
Would it make the all U.S. students more homogenous, and if so – would that improve our global standings? Principals Often the middle person between various forces and whose responsibility is implementing curriculum decisions already made. Is influenced by Managerial responsibilities Staff Parents School Board Superintendents Teachers Students Government State standards Unions Peers Community Influences Students Teachers Peers Instructional materials School Critical questions Would it be more effective to have two separate positions – one for managerial responsibilities, and the other educational leader?
What if accountability was directed toward the community more than upward in the educational system? Federal Government Is influenced by Resource Allocations Reports Nonprofit organizations For profit organizations Unions Agencies Studies Constitution Equality issues Each branch of the government States Populous movements Global economy From ED.gov:
“Education is primarily a State and local responsibility in the United States…the Federal contribution to elementary and secondary education is about 10.8 percent, which includes funds not only from the Department of Education (ED) but also from other Federal agencies, such as the Department of Health and Human Services' Head Start program and the Department of Agriculture's School Lunch program.” Influences Schools States Students Teachers Communities Businesses Mandates Instructional materials Standards Critical questions Should the emphasis be more on developing curriculum or producing change?
How involved should the Federal government be with private schools?
Should monies be awarded to states, or more local? States “By omitting all mention of education, the signers of the Constitution left the question to the individual states, and, to this day, the U.S. government has no constitutional power to dictate national educational standards for American public schools.”
Encyclopedia of American Education Is influenced by Legislatures Budgetary concerns Fiscal responsibility Tax base Federal mandates Political arena Businesses Natural resources Competition Institutes of higher learning Federal standards Unions Professional organizations US Department of Education Influences Academic content standards Budgets Standardized testing Teachers Teacher certification and competency Districts Schools Communities Students Critical questions Would it serve the stakeholders better if more Federal control was instituted?
Which should have the most influential role in education, the state or local school districts?
Should mandatory testing be less emphasized as a means of accountability?
In Ohio, should funding be more fairly distributed by taxing other means rather than property tax? Economics “Education and skills are important because they expand a worker's capacity to perform tasks or to use productive technologies.” - ies.ed.gov Is influenced by Global economy U.S. economy Job markets Corporate concerns Local economy Business leaders Influences Budgets Grants Government Legislation Organizations Communities Schools Critical questions Is this perhaps the most influential force in determining today’s educational system?
Since the ultimate goal of every student is to be financially secure, should this play a much larger role in the development of curriculum?
Is our current educational system still based on industrial needs of the 19th century?
Can charter schools do a better job than public schools, especially if they had the fiscal resources the public school now has?
Can businesses have a substantial impact if they get directly involved in local schools, i.e. Hughes? Organizations Can be for profit or non profit groups who are organized for a particular purpose and usually with a specific agenda in mind. Is influenced by Profit Trained workforce Ideology Think tanks Interest groups Common interests Social/Political agendas Social welfare Advocates Influences Instructional material Grants Schools Students Standards Tests Policy Awards Educators Critical question How much weight should any curriculum influenced or written by these organizations hold? Miscellaneous This is a catch-all list of individual influences that may or may not purposefully try to influence curriculum. Is influenced by Sociologists Psychologists Professional reformers Educational research Outside competition
(Private/charter schools) Media Celebrities Journalists Internet Interest groups Salespeople of instructional material Technology Technological advancements Influences Policy Grants Academic standards Instructional materials Students Information Populist ideology Parents Forces that influence These are some of the stakeholders involved with shaping curriculum.
I have listed some of the ways and means in which forces can influence, and are influenced by, those interested in having some input on what the curriculum focuses on. Standards Tests Instructional material