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The Nervous System

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Lana A

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of The Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System Sensory Division Motor Division The
Nervous
System Lana Allen
Kathryn Kochevar
Miguel Munoz
Maurice Victor II Consists of the brain and the spinal cord

It processes information and creates a response
sends the response through the peripheral nervous system to the rest of the body The Central Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System Consists of all nerves and the cells that are not part of the brain or spinal

Collects information about the internal and external environment

Sends the information to the central nervous system so the central nervous system can formulate a response

Consists of the motor and sensory divisions The Autonomic Nervous System Regulates activities that are involuntary
-For example: When you start to run, the autonomic nervous system speeds up heart rate and blood flow, stimulates sweat glands, and slows down the contractions of smooth muscles in the digestive system Consists of two important parts: 1. The Sympathetic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System (Part of the Peripheral Nervous System Motor Division) Consists of two parts: The Sympathetic Nervous System The Parasympathetic Nervous System Prepares the body for intense activities

Increases blood pressure
releases energy-rich sugar into blood
Shuts down activities not related to body's preparation to fight or flee Creates the "rest and digest" response
Lowers heart rate and blood pressure
Activates digestion
Activates pathways that store food molecules in the tissues of the body Regulates body activities under conscious control such as the movement of skeletal muscles

Voluntary Control: Impulses from the brain go through the spinal cord. The axons go from the spinal cord directly to the muscles causing the contractions

Reflex Arcs: when your body automatically reacts. The sensory receptors react, send an impulse to the sensory neurons, relay the information to the spinal cord, an interneuron processes and forms a response, the motor neuron carries impulses to the region where the muscle reacts Cranial nerves stimulate regions of the head and neck

Spinal nerves stimulate the rest of the body The Somatic Nervous System Regulates body activities under conscious control such as the movement of skeletal muscles

Reflex Arcs: when your body automatically reacts. The sensory receptors react, send an impulse to the sensory neurons, relay the information to the spinal cord, an interneuron processes and forms a response, the motor neuron carries impulses to the region where the muscle reacts

Voluntary Control: Impulses from the brain go through the spinal cord. The axons go from the spinal cord directly to the muscles causing the contractions (Part of the Peripheral Nervous System in the Motor Division) The Sensory Division (Part of the Peripheral Nervous System) Transmits impulses from sense organs to the central nervous system

Sensory receptors: cells that transmit information about changes in the internal and external environment the sensory neurons central nervous system Types of Sensory Receptors Type of receptor Responds To Location of Sensory Receptors Chemoreceptor Chemicals Mouth, Nose, Blood Vessels

Photoreceptor Light Eyes

Mechanoreceptor Touch, Pressure, Vibrations Skin, Hair Follicles, Ears, Ligaments
Stretch Tendons

Thermoreceptor Temperature Changes Skin, Hypothalamus

Pain Receptor Tissue Injury Throughout the Body Major Areas of the Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem

Responsible for processing and relaying information most important task

Stem cells in the brain produce new neurons all throughout life.
Many originate in the memory or learning region and don't stay the same The Spinal Cord Most neurons enter and leave the brain through the spinal cord
It is the main communication link between the brain and the rest of the body
Carries signal between the central and peripheral nervous system
31 pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord
Reflexes are sent directly to the spinal cord Cerebrum Responsible for: voluntary actions, learning, intelligence, and judgement Divided into two layers and two hemispheres, the left and right, that deal with the opposite sides of the body
Each is divided into lobes
4 lobes that are associated with different functions Cerebral Cortex: outer layer that is made up of gray matter - densely packed nerve cell bodies Processes information from the sense organs and controls body movements Where plans learning, abilities, and thoughts are processed White Matter: inner layer that connects different areas of the cerebral cortex or connects it to other areas of the brain Limbic System Emotions, behavior, pleasure, and memory are associated with it Amygdala: associated with emotional learning (fear and anxiety and long-term memories) Pleasure center: produces feelings of satisfaction and well-being Thalamus and Hypothalamus Between the brain stem and the cerebrum Thalamus: receives messages from the sensory receptors and then sends it to the correct part of the cerebrum Hypothalamus: controls hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temperature
also coordinates the nervous and endocrine systems Cerebellum Second largest region in the brain Information about muscles, joints, and sensory inputs are sent here Helps coordinate balance and the action of muscles Brain Stem Connects the brain and spinal cord Three Regions: Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata Regulates the flow from the brain to the body Regulates blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and swallowing Keeps the body functioning while sleeping or injury Drugs and Addiction Dopamine is associated with the brains pleasure and reward centers When we experience pleasure, dopamine is produced which makes us get the feeling of well being or pleasure Drugs can do a variety of things including:
releasing a flood of dopamine
keeping dopamine in a synaptic region longer
intensifying pleasure
suppressing pain When there is excessive dopamine, the brain reduces the number of receptors for the neurotransmitter
This makes it so activities that would normally bring you pleasure no longer do

Addicts feel sick or depressed without the drugs because there are less receptors and larger amount of drugs that produce the "high"

This results in addicts spiraling into a deeper and deeper addiction "DO NOT DO DRUGS" Taste & Smell: What we think is taste is actually mostly smell. Taste buds in our mouth and are on our tongue detect most of flavors: savory, sweet, sour, salty, bitter Hearing: When sounds goes through the ear and the tiny hair cells in the cochlea are pushed back an forth, the hair cells send nerve impulses to the brain = sounds Balance (Equilibrium): Semi-circular canals are just above the cochlea, and two tiny sacs of fluid full of tiny hair cells are right behind them. These monitor the position of your body in relation to gravity. When your head moves, the hair cells are moved, it sends impulses to the brain to allow it to determine the position of the body and it's motion Sight: The lens focuses light onto the retina where the photoreceptors convert it into nerve impulses that are carried to the brain through the optic nerve. However, there aren't any photoreceptors in the back of the eye where the optic nerve passes through.... leaving blind spots. The brain then fills the holes with information The Senses What does the central nervous system do? Processes information and creates a response What does the Peripheral Nervous System do and what two divisions does it contain? collects information about the internal and external environment
the motor and sensory division What is associated with the Limbic System? Emotions, Behavior, Memory, and Pleasure What does the Spinal Cord do? Carries signals between the central and peripheral nervous systems
It is the main communication link between the brain and the rest of the body When you take drugs, your body produces more of what? Dopamine The Motor Division consists of what two systems? The autonomic and somatic systems The Autonomic System is comprised of what two parts? Which part is each responsible for? Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
Sympathetic: prepares you for intense activities
Parasympathetic: prepares you for rest and sleep
Sensory- carry impulses from sense organs to the spinal cord and brain
Motor- carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
Internerurons- process information from sensory neurons and send commands to other interneurons and motor neurons
Cell body- largest part of the neuron; consists of the nucleus and cytoplasm
Dendrites- receive impulses from other neurons and carry them to the cell body
Axon- a long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body; ends in axon terminals (small swellings)
Myelin Sheath- surrounds the axon with gaps (nodes) that allows impulses to travel faster Structure Neurons -Lana Allen Frontal Lobe: evaluates consequences, makes judgments, and makes plans Temporal Lobe: hearing and smell Parietal Lobe: reading and speech Occipital Lobe: vision The Somatic Nervous System does what? Regulates body activities under conscious control The Sensory Division transmits impulses from __________ to ___________? The sense organs to the central nervous system What we think is taste is actually mostly _____________? Smell What part of the ear sends nerve impulses to the brain? The hair cells inside the cochlea What carries nerve impulses to the brain? The optic nerve What allows the position of your body to be monitored? Tiny sacs of fluid FIN Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Motor Division Motor Division Sensory Division Motor Division
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