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Sociocultural Factors (Teaching Methodology)
Transcript of Sociocultural Factors (Teaching Methodology)
established by groups in order to ensure their survival
attitudes, values, beliefs, norms, behaviors
shared by a group BUT harbored DIFFERENTLY by each specific unit
communicated across generations
has the potential to change across time Sociocultural Factors Chapter 7
Principles of Language and
H. Douglas Brown Prezi by
Farshad Danaee Fard Culture Stereotype assigns group characteristics to individuals purely based on their cultural membership judge a single member of a culture by overall traits of the culture prejudge misjudge Attitudes Stereotyping implies some sort of attitude toward the culture or language in question
attitudes develop early in childhood
attitudes are the result of:
parents' and peers' attitudes
contact with people who are "different" in any number of ways
interacting affective factors in the human experience
these attitudes form a part of one's perception of self, of others, and of the culture in which one is living Second language learning Second identity Culture learning Acculturation person's world view
systems of thinking, acting,
feeling, communicating can be disrupted by
a contact with another
culture. if this disruption
is severe, it is called
Culture Shock Culture Shock a phenomena ranging from MILD IRRITABILITY to DEEP PSYCHOLOGICAL PANIC and CRISIS.
feelings of estrangement
persons undergoing culture shock view their new world out of resentment and alternate between self-pity and anger at others for not understanding them Four successive stages of culture acquisition Stage 1. EXCITEMENT and EUPHORIA over the newness of surroundings
Stage 2. CULTURE SHOCK
individuals feel the intrusion of more and more cultural differences into their own images of self and security.
individuals rely on and seek out the support of their fellow countrymen in the second culture.
taking solace in complaining about local customs and conditions.
seeking escape from their predicament.
Stage 3. gradual, tentative and vacillating RECOVERY
Culture Stress: some problems of acculturation are solved while other problems continue for some time. Larson and Smalley (1972)
progress is made, slowly but surely. acceptance of the differences in thinking and feeling.
slowly becoming more emphatic with persons in second culture.
Stage 4. NEAR or FULL RECOVERY
assimilation, adaption and acceptance of the new culture
self-confidence in the "new" person that has developed in new culture Second culture acquisition anomie-feelings of social uncertainty or dissatisfaction: 1. a significant aspect of the relationship between language learning and attitude toward the foreign culture.
2. feelings of chagrin and regret as the result of beginning to lose some of the ties of native culture and the adaptation to the second culture; mixed with the fearful anticipation of entering a new group.
3. the first symptom of the third stage of acculturation, a feeling of homelessness... the strongest dose of anomie is experienced when linguistically a person begins to "master" the foreign language. (like English speaking Canadians learning French); Lambert (1967)
the interaction of anomie and increased skill in the language sometimes led persons to revert or to "regress" back to English
such an urge corresponds to the tentativeness of the third stage of acculturation periodic reversion to the escape mechanisms acquired in the earlier stage of culture shock. Not until a person is well into the third stage do feelings of anomie decrease because the learner is "over the hump" in the transition to adaptation. culture shock, while surely possessing manifestations of crisis can also be viewed more positively as a profound cross-cultural learning experience. Peter Adler (1972:14)
a set of situations or circumstances involving intercultural communication in which the individual, as a result of the experiences, becomes aware of his own growth, learning and change.
the cross-cultural learning experience, takes place when the individual encounters a different culture:
a. examines the degree to which he is influenced by his own culture
b. understands the culturally derived values, attitudes and outlooks of other people Social Distance cognitive and affective proximity of two cultures that come into contact within an individual social distance parameters: John Schumann (1976c:136) 1.Dominance: In relation to the TL group, is the L2 group politically, culturally, technically or economically dominant, non-dominant, or subordinate?
2.Integration: Is the integration pattern of the L2 group assimilation, acculturation, or preservation? What is the L2 group's degree of enclosure-its identity separate from other contiguous groups?
3.Cohesiveness: Is the L2 group cohesive? What is the size of the L2 group?
4.Congruence: Are the cultures of the two groups congruent-sim¬ilar in their value and belief systems? What are the attitudes of the two groups toward each other?
5.Permanence: What is the L2 group's intended length of residence in the target language area? Schumann used mentioned factors to describe hypothetically "good" and "bad" language learning situations two hypothetical "bad" language learning situations:
1. The TL group views the L2 group as dominant and the L2 group views itself in the same way. Both groups desire preservation and high enclosure for the L2 group, the L2 group is both cohesive and large, the two cultures are not congruent, the two groups hold negative attitudes toward each other, and the L2 group intends to remain in the TL area only for a short time.
2. The second bad situation has all the characteristics of the first except that in this case, the L2 group considers itself subordinate and is considered subordinate by the TL group. the L2 group is non-dominant to the TL group
both desire assimilation (acculturation) for the L2
low enclosure is the goal of both
the two cultures are congruent
L2 group is small and non-cohesive
both have positive attitudes towards each other
L2 intends to remain in the target language area a long time A "good" language learning situation social distance would be minimal and acquisition of the target language would be enhanced Schumann's model measurement of actual social distance one of the difficulties in Schumann's hypothesis of social distance measurement of perceived social distance William Acton (1979) proposed a solution to the dilemma the actual distance between cultures is not particularly relevant since it is what learners perceive that forms their own reality. William Acton (1979) Professed Difference in Attitude Questionnaire (pDAQ) by asking learners to respond to three dimensions of distance, Acton devised a measure of perceived social distance: distance (or difference) between themselves and their countrymen in general.
distance between themselves and members of the target culture in general.
distance between their countrymen and members of the target culture. supported Lambert's (1967) contention that mastery of the foreign language takes
place hand-in-hand with feelings of anomie or homelessness, where learners have moved away from their native culture but are still not completely assimilated into or adjusted to the target culture. Acton's research + Lambert's = mastery or skillful fluency in a second language (within the second culture) occurs somewhere at the beginning of the third-recovery-stage of acculturation.
stage 3 may provide not only the optimal distance but the optimal cognitive and affective tension to produce the necessary pressure to acquire the language, pressure that is neither too overwhelming nor too weak.
language mastery at Stage 3, in turn, would appear to be an instrument for progressing psychologically through Stage 3 and finally into Stage 4. Optimal distance model (Brown 1980) an adult who fails to master a second language in a second culture may for a host of reasons have failed to synchronize linguistic and cultural development.
Adults who have achieved non-linguistic means of coping in the foreign culture will pass through Stage 3 and into Stage 4 with an undue number of fossilized forms of language, never achieving mastery.
They have no reason to achieve mastery since they have learned to cope without sophis¬ticated knowledge of the language.
They may have acquired a sufficient number of functions of a second language without acquiring the correct forms.
While the optimal distance model applies more appropriately to adult learners, it could pertain to children, although less critically so. Different varieties of English in different parts of the world are called World Englishes. For example Indian English. These varieties emerge as the result of 'nativization' or 'indigenization' of the English. The term 'nativization' refers to the changes which English has undergone as a result of its contact with various languages in diverse cultural and geographical settings in the Outer Circle of English which includes South Asia, South East Asia, West Africa, Malaysia etc. World Englishes Linguistic Imperialism and Language Rights transfer of a dominant language to other people
demonstration of power: traditionally: military power the modern world: economic power aspects of the dominant culture are usually transferred along with the language Phillipson defines English linguistic imperialism as the dominance asserted and retained by the establishment and continuous reconstitution of structural and cultural inequalities between English and other languages. A central issue in the linguistic imperialism debate is the devaluing of native languages through the colonial spread of English. The Whorfian Hypothesis (linguistic relativity, or linguistic determinism) the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers are able to conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view.
Popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined as having two versions:
1. the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determines cognitive categories.
2. the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behavior.
Ronald Wardhaugh (1976: 74) offered the following alternative to a strong view of the Whorfian hypothesis:
The most valid conclusion to all such studies is that it appears possible to talk about anything in any language provided the speaker is willing to use some degree of circumlocution.