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Stereotypes, Prejudice and Cultural Conflicts
Transcript of Stereotypes, Prejudice and Cultural Conflicts
"The public image of being male or female that a person presents to others"
Primary School Teachers
women still only make
a man makes
Women are the primary providers in
of american households with children under 18
of senior managers are women
Females are generally
than Males in films
~27% being in their
and 28% in their
~27% in there
and 31% in their
Not established until the early 20th century
"Changes in People's Thoughtsabout Gender Stereotypes." Gender Stereotypes. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://genderstereotype.nomaki.jp/>.
"SelectedWorks of Julie C Suk." "Are Gender Stereotypes Bad for Women? Rethinking Antidiscrimination L" by Julie C. Suk. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://works.bepress.com/julie_suk/2/>.
"Childhood Gender Roles In Adult Life." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 26 May 2014. <
"WorkâFamily Imagery and Gender Stereotypes: Television and the Reproduction of Difference." WorkâFamily Imagery and Gender Stereotypes: Television and the Reproduction of Difference. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001879196915754>.
"True or Not, Gender Stereotypes Hurt Us All." Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://seattletimes.com/html/health/2003391767_carnalknowledge12.html>.
"Salem Press." Salem Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2014. <http://salempress.com/store/samples/psychology/psychology_gender.htm>.
"Forcing Girls to Wear Pink Could Harm Their Future, Warns Education Spokeswoman." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 30 Apr. 2014. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/10799817/Forcing-girls-to-wear-pink-could-harm-their-future-warns-education-spokeswoman.html>.
Donald, Athene. "Reinforcing Gender Stereotypes: How Our Schools Narrow Children's Choices." Theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media, 09 Dec. 2013. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://www.theguardian.com/science/occams-corner/2013/dec/09/gender-stereotypes-schools-children-choices>.
"What the Research Says: Gender-Typed Toys | National Association for the Education of Young Children | NAEYC." What the Research Says: Gender-Typed Toys | National Association for the Education of Young Children | NAEYC. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2014. <http://www.naeyc.org/content/what-research-says-gender-typed-toys>.
Waterlow, Lucy. "Too Much in the Pink! How Toys Have Become Alarmingly Gender Stereotyped since the Seventies... at the Cost of Little Girls' Self-esteem." Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 11 June 2013. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2338976/Too-pink-How-toys-alarmingly-gender-stereotyped-Seventies--cost-little-girls-self-esteem.html>.
"Contents." Contents. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://malegender.blogspot.com/>.
Pallotta, Frank. "Female Protagonists Made Up A Tiny Percentage Of 2013's Top Movies." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 11 Mar. 2014. Web. 26 May 2014. <http://www.businessinsider.com/female-protagonists-lacking-in-2013s-top-films-2014-3>.
Pictures from creative commons
“men can’t cook”
“women can’t drive”
Conflict management styles
First adopted in 1798 to describe a printing plate that duplicated any typography.
Today the term stereotype is commonly used to refer to negative or positive judgements made about individuals based on any observable or believed group membership.
Stereotypes are used by all groups.
Stereotypes are pervasive and hard to remove.
Prejudices refer to the irrational dislike, suspicion, or hatred of a particular group, race, religion, or sexual orientation (Rothenberg, 1992)
Ex: Basketball game.
How you get from peaceful, sport-loving people to advocating violence against someone wearing a wrong T-shirt.
Discussion about the role of media (the internet, TV, ...) as vehicles of stereotypes and prejudices.
What type of stereotype/prejudice is displayed on the ad/video clip ?
Take an objective look on the issue you might see. How do you feel about it ?
Comment: "Television is supposed to be a mirror of the society"
Subtle prejudice activity - comfort in social situations
Create awareness of how subtle beliefs and behaviors can affect social interactions in everyday life.
Research on modern prejudice shows that all people are prejudiced to some degree, even if they are not aware of it. (Dovidio and Gaertner, 2004)
defined as an
"interaction of interdependent people who perceive opposition of goals, aims and values, and who see the other party as potentially interfering with the realization of these goals" Putnam and Poole's (1987)
of conflicts (...)
Interdependence of the parties involved
"As culture acts as a guide and predictor of communication behavior, conflict in intercultural settings must be viewed in terms of culture and communication" Liu and Chen (1999)
The sources of intercultural conflict are myriad.
Conflict is pervasive in all societies.
Intercultural conflict involves perceptions filtered through our cultural lenses.
"The cultural relationship between past, present, and future is crucial in understanding intercultural conflict" Martin Nakayama (2000)
Ingroup and outgroup bias has been one of he major sources of intercultural conflict in all societies throughout history.
Happen at many different levels (interpersonal, social, national, and international)
Also can be generational
Also exist in extreme forms (religious conflicts can end in enormous tragedies)
≠ just a matter of disagreement
Three significant approaches to understand
social science approach
Fact: Intercultural conflict is a conflict between two or more cultural groups.
Different types of conflict
Conflict of interest
Suggestions for dealing with conflict
Stay centered and do not polarize.
Recognize the existence of different styles.
Identify your preferred style.
Be creative and expand your style repertoire.
Recognize the importance of conflict context.
Be willing to forgive.
How do stereotypes arise?
Us versus Them, Scollon and Scollon (2012)
Contrast two cultures or two groups on the basis of some single dimension
Then focus on this artificial and ideological difference as a problem for communication
After that, assign a positive value to one strategy or one group and a negative value to the other strategy or group
Generalize this process to the entire group; Characteristics are assumed to be genetic or racial characteristics
Result: overall negative impression of particular individuals or particular groups
Note: Profiling example.
Based on the pictures below, answer the questions.
Who would you hire in your start-up company ?
Who would you introduce to your parents during the Sunday family lunch ?
Per group of four, share a personal cultural conflict and give details on how you solved it.
In the field of Conflict Management, Black and Mouton came up with 5 different management styles. According to your own experience and the tab below, how would you describe your conflict resolution style ? Do you think it has something to do with your nationality ?
Do you consider conflicts as destructive or as an opportunity ? Why ?
The five Conflict Resolution styles referred to in the model are characterized as follows
I win, You lose
I lose, You win
I lose, You lose
I win some, You win some
I win, You win
(Black and Mouton)
Martin Nakayama, Ch. 8
Martin Nakayama, Ch. 11