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Photography

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Jessica Green

on 10 September 2015

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Transcript of Photography

Photography
lets get snappy
Explain Photography...
Photography
HISTORY
Through photography we are able to freeze time and see the invisible in everyday life. We can record distant objects like starts and galaxies, or capture the molecules and atoms that compose the very fabric of existence. Cameras have recorded both the horror of war and the miracle of birth. Photographs have changed laws and lives.
Photography = science + art
A sweet stew of chemistry, physics, and optics with the craftsmanship of printmaking, and the aesthetic values of drawing and painting.

Photography Styles
- the Approach
- Who are the people doing photography
Famous Photographers!
...just to name a few...

Photo - comes from the Greek word Photos = “Light”

graphy comes from the Greek word
Graphein - "drawing or to draw"

Photography = drawing with light

Light + Film = Photography
Photography = The physical and technical + the aesthetic and beautiful.
The word was first used by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. It is a method of recording images by the action of light, or related radiation, on a sensitive material.

1888
1923
1928
1933
1814
1839
1840
1871
1948
1960
1988
Joseph Nicephore Niepce a French inventor
took the "first" surviving photo in history by
using a bitumen coated pewter plate. Bitumen
is a substance that will harden when exposed to light.
After being exposed to the light for 8 hours
Niepce exposed the photo by dissolving the
unhardened areas.
This was not his first attempt but this was the first
permanent print that is still able to be viewed today.
"View from the Window at Le Gras"
circa 1826
Daguerreotype
Louis Jacques Daguerre
The first practical photography process was perfected
in 1839 by Louis Jaques Daquerre. The daguerreotype was a positive black-and-white image on a mirror polished, silver-plated copper sheet. The image was sharp and finely detailed, and the public loved it. Within a year of its invention, it was in use all over the world.
One-of-a-kind originals and the copper sheet could not be used to make additional prints.
The exposure time was reduced to 30 minutes which made portrait photography possible but very uncomfortable!
You could focus the image by sliding the box and changing the distance between the lens and the sensitive plate.
Calotype
William H. Fox Talbot
William Henry Fox Talbot began his contribution to photography.
Based on Johann Heinrich Schulze work in 1727 which proved that
silver salts were darkened by light itself.
Talbot soaked sheets of paper in silver chloride, put them inside camea obscuras, and made paper negatives. By 1839, he was contact printing his negatives to other light sensitive sheets to create positive prints. Formed the basis for all photographic processes that followed. Calotype - Invented by William Fox Talbot in 1840. The first camera
to use a negative print. Silver Iodine is the sensitive element in the Calotype. When exposed to light Silver Iodine decomposes to silver the negative that was created in the process could then be printed multiple times.
William Fox Talbot invented the Calotype process. An advantage of the Calotype process was that unlimited duplicates could be made from the original negative. A disadvantage of the Calotype process was that it’s quality was not as good as the Daguerreotype images.
Dry Plate
Richard Leach Maddox
The Dry Plate process enabled mobile photography. The Dry Plate process used a gelatin coated plate that could be prepared prior to the photo shoot and carried around until they were needed. The picture did not have to be developed immediately after the shoot which eliminated the need to carry chemicals and a dark tent around. The exposure time was also significantly shorter which led to the development of the mechanical shutter.
The dry plate process allowed photography to move from strictly professionals to the every day person.
Photographic Film
George Eastman Kodak
George Eastman (1854-1932) changed the nature of photography. In 1888, he made the first mass market, point-and-shoot camera, called the Kodak. One year later, he introduced a new version of his Kodak camera that used a roll of film. it was a simple box camera preloaded with enough film to make 100 exposures. His invention made photography accessible to anyone, professional or amateur.
35mm Film
Oskar Barnack
Leitz Optische Werke
(Leica)
A German inventor Oskar Barnack designed the first 35mm film camera. Leica I (Leitz Camera) was easy to operate, light, compact, and provided a high quality enlargement. 35mm Film and the 135 cartridge (Kodak) became the standard until digital photography became widespread.
TLR
P. Franke and R Heidecke
Franke & Heidecke
(Rolleiflex)
TLR or Twin Lens Reflex camera added a second viewfinder lens with the same focal point and size as the main lens. This gave the viewer a better representation of the final picture before the photo was taken. The lenses are connected so that the focus is reflected in the viewfinder. Most of the TLR's had a waist level viewfinder and a mirror which reflects the image upwards. The shutter was simple and allowed an open shutter for long exposure photography. TLR's are still in production today.
SLR
Karl Nuchterlein
Ihagee (Exakta)
The Exakta released in Dresden, Germany was the first Single Lens Reflex camera. The viewer sees the picture through the same lens the picture is taken by a mirror that lays on the shutter then the shutter is closed the picture is directed towards the viewfinder. This arrangement is the first to let the user see the picture as it will appear on print, including focus and depth of fielt.
Instant Camera
Edwin Land
Polaroid
Founder of the Polaroid Corporation Edwin Land created the first instant camera - the Land Camera.
The camera used a patented chemical process which allowed the prints to be developed in under a minute. The Land Camera was expensive but was a great success.
Ansel Adams
February 20, 1902, San Francisco, CA
Style - Art Photographer
20th century
Specialty - Landscape
Black-and-white landscape photographs American West, especially Yosemite National Park, have been widely reproduced

Front view of entrance, "Church, Taos Pueblo National Historic Landmark, New Mexico, 1942" [Misicn de San Gercnimo] (vertical orientation);
From the series Ansel Adams Photographs of National Parks and Monuments, compiled 1941–42, documenting the period ca. 1933–42.
The Tetons and the Snake River (1942) Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the National Park Service.
Dorothea Lange
May 26, 1895, Hoboken, NJ
Social Realism
Breaks rules of documentary/art photography
Hired by FSA/government to take photographs through the US “The Migrant Mother”
(1936, CA) art vs. documentary

Back in the time the rules were there but they weren’t as strict as they were today.
"The Migrant Mother" has become seen as a documentary photograph because it captures a piece of American history in a way that is very unique.
Portrait shows Florence Thompson with several of her children in a photograph known as "Migrant Mother". The Library of Congress caption reads: "Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. Age thirty-two. Nipomo, California."

The family become an icon of resilience in the face of adversity. However, some believe that Florence Thompson was a migrant pea picker.

Henri Cartier- Bresson
August 22, 1908, Chanteloup-en-Brie, France

"The father of modern photo-journalism"
early adapter of the 35mm camera
French photographer worked for Magnum photo agency
Documentary that is still artistic!
Quote: "To take a photograph is to align the head, the eye and the heart. It's a way of life."

Lady in the Water
Weeki Wachee Spring, Florida, 1947. Photo by Toni Frissell.

Lewis Hine's
Powerhouse Mechanic and Steam Pump, 1920.
"Work Portrait"



Callaway Golf ad



Zoom Lens
Heinz Kilfitt
Voigtlander (Zoomar)
The first production zoom lens for still photography. The lens was designed by the man who coined the term "zoom" Heinz Kilfitt.
The lens (36-82/2.8 Zoomer) was designed for a 35mm still camera and is still regarded as a high quality zoom lens.
Digital Camera
Fuji (DS-1P)
The First fully digital production camera. Pioneer in digital photography both high end and consumer.
Camera Phone
Sharp (J-SH04)
The Sharp J-SHO4 is the first cell phone to have a built-in camera. Released in 2000 it was marketed as the J-phone in Japan. The CMOS advance in electronic miniaturization which enabled an extremely small camera-on-a-chip solution. (380x285 at 256 color resolution)
2000
- Art Photography
- Created with artist in mind, express themselves
push boundaries of visual world.
- About the photographer.

- Documentary Photography
About the subject (report)
Documenting the situation in as neutral way as possible making the story about the person being documented. A report about that person
- Commercial Photography
- Growing field (ups and downs) customer in mind
- Advertising
- Sold to private person or company (paying you for your images using it for advertisements.)
- Promotional
- Wedding (unless shooting as photo journalist for a magazine)
- Fashion (often paid by the maker of the clothing, or someone watching a runway show.)
- X
- Make public record (Police, salesmen…using photography in their work but not in the other groups/styles)
The only known photo of Billy the Kid and an early mug shot of Whitey Bulger.
1907
Color Photography! The first successful color process was the autochrome, invented in France by the Lumiere brothers in 1907, which used a glass-plate color transparency made up of red, green, and blue grains of dyed starch, usually from potatoes. Autochrome images were delicate and beautiful.
470 BCE
Camera Obscura
The camera obscura has been known to scholars since the time of the chinese philosopher Mozi and greek philosopher Aristotle.
The camera obscura is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing and for entertainment, and was one of the inventions that led to photography and the camera. The device consists of a box or room with a hole in one side. Light from an external scene passes through the hole and strikes a surface inside, where it is reproduced, rotated 180 degrees (thus upside-down), but with color and perspective preserved. The image can be projected onto paper, and can then be traced to produce a highly accurate representation
Western artists used the camera obscura as a drawing aid. The image was projected onto canvas or paper for the artist to trace it. Mirrors were added to flip the upside down image right side up.
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