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How Successful was the Civil Rights Movement?

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Humanities Department

on 21 March 2016

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Transcript of How Successful was the Civil Rights Movement?

How Successful was the Civil Rights Movement?
Achievements & failures:
Find someone who was looking at a different topic from yourself from yesterday.
Note down the topic they were looking at & what they thought the biggest successes & failures were.
Do this one more time to complete your notes on all three topics.
Civil Rights Movement Timeline:
What was the Civil Rights Movement aiming to achieve?
To end racial segregation & prejudice.
Improve black political participation.
Tackle social and economic inequality
1956
1957
1968
1960
1955
1954
Brown vs Topeka Board of Education
As a result schools were desegregated and 'the separate but equal' Supreme Court Ruling of 1896 was effectively overturned.

However, many states were slow to make changes meaning black Americans were still receiving an inferior education.

Tackling segregation


NAACP
Successes
Limitations
...
...
Aspect:
Protest Groups/Leaders who influenced this
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT TIMELINE TASK:
Create a timeline covering the 9 key Civil Rights Acts or events from 1954-1968.
For each act make sure you have the following information:
1. The name of the Act or event.
2. Successes of the Act or event.
3. Limitations of Act or event.
4. What aspect of black Americans lives did this improve (either segregation/political participation/economic and social inequality)
5. Which protest groups or leaders influenced the passing of the Act or event.
Extension Task:
1. Which aspect appears to have been most successfully tackled by the Civil Rights Movement? Explain your answer.
2. Why do you think the Civil Rights campaign was not as effective in the North as it was in the South?
3. 'Despite not fully achieving its aims, the Civil Rights Movement deserves a great degree of credit given the widespread racism they had to fight against' Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
To what extent did the Civil Rights campaigns of the 1950s and 1960s result in significant improvements in the lives of black Americans?
Background:

Factors:



Line of argument:
Why did the Civil Rights Movement start to gain momentum in the 1950s & 60s?
By 1968 the Civil Rights Movement had been instrumental in changing attitudes to black inequality and as a result the US Government had introduced legislation to end segregation, tackle political inequality and improve social and economic problems that black Americans faced.
However, despite these improvements, not all problems were tackled and debate still exists over how successful the Civil Rights Movement was. This essay will argue that...
Segregation:
Social & Economic Inequality:
Political Participation:
What was the problem?
How did the CRM try to tackle this?
Successes of the CRM?
Limitations/failures
Overall Evaluation:
Establishing contradiction or inconsistencies within factors



Establishing contradiction or inconsistencies between factors




The importance of factors in relation to the context



The overall impact/significance of the factors when taken together

The 1964 Civil Rights Act officially ended legal segregation and in theory meant black Americans lives would improve because... However, the success of this was limited as.....
The non-violent peaceful protests of the Civil Rights movement proved highly effective at improving the lives of black Americans in the South by tackling segregation. However, these tactics were ineffective in...
Given the extreme racism that existed in the 50s & 60s, the Civil Rights Movement....
When all the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement are taken together...
Civil Rights Successes Analysis:
Sort the cards into the relevant factor
Tackling segregation
Improving political participation of black Americans
Tackling social & economic inequality.
Sort the cards for each factor into successes and failures
Use this to write at least two points of analysis for each factor.
In what aspect of life were most improvements made by the CRM:
Tackling segregation
Improving Political Participation
Tackling social & Economic inequality
In what aspect was life least improved/
1. Which aspect appears to have been most successfully tackled by the Civil Rights Movement? Explain your answer.
2. Why do you think the Civil Rights campaign was not as effective in the North as it was in the South?
3. 'Despite not fully achieving its aims, the Civil Rights Movement deserves a great degree of credit given the widespread racism they had to fight against' Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.
Analysis:
Historiography
Read through the quotes on the handout. Complete the questions for each section, using the cards to help if necessary.
How can this help analysis in an essay?
Historian ______ argues that ________. This view can be supported by the fact that ... This shows us that the Civil Rights Movement was successful in...

OR
Historian ______ argues that _______ . However, this is not the case because... This shows us that ...
Historian Hugh Brogan argues that 'Brown v Topeka turned out be only the first blow in a new battle in the long, long war. This can be supported by the fact that Southern States were very slow to desegregate schools - by 1957 just 12% of schools had been desegregated. This shows us that although the Civil Rights Movement was successful in ending segregation, Southern States did all they could to resist these changes; no law could tackle the overwhelming racism that still existed in the South.
Historian Ron Field argues that the confrontations the Black Panthers had with police limited their success in improving social and economic conditions. However, this is an unfair criticism of the Black Panthers, given that they only ever acted in self-defence and thier free breakfast and education programmes were unfairly shut down by the FBI. This shows us that the failure to improve the social and economic inequalities of the North was down to the actions of the FBI, not the Black Panthers,
Evaluations:
Improving Political Participation
Tackling Segregation
Tackling Social & Economic Inequalities
1. In which aspect do you think life was most improved for black Americans by the Civil Rights Movement? Explain why.
2. In which aspect was the CRM least successful? Explain your answer.
Overall, the Civil Rights Movement was _______ successful in improving the lives of black Americans in terms of ______ because ________. However, the lives of black Americans were ________ improved in terms of _______ because ______. Therefore the Civil rights Movement was only partly successful.
Recap Quiz:
1. Why did the Civil Rights Movement grow in the 1950s & 60s?

2. What three aspects of black American lives did the CRM aim to improve?

3. How successful do you think the CRM was in improving life for black Americans?
4. Give three examples of how life was improved for black Americans in terms of ending segregation?
5. Give two examples of more black Americans participating in politics?
6. What events/groups helped to bring attention to the problems faced by black Americans living in the North?
7. Which aspect of life was most significantly improved for black Americans by the CRM?
Background:
Factors:
Line of Argument
KU:
Evaluations:
Success Criteria:
Key rulings or acts:
How did this improve life for black Americans
What protests/protests groups/events helped to influence the passing of each act?
Other improvements for black Americans in this period.
Problems that black Americans still faced in 1968
Historians opinion's of the success of the CRM

Must cover all three factors:
Improving Political Participation
Tackling Segregation
Tackling Social & Economic Inequalities

1968: The end of the Civil Rights Movement
Why did the CRM end in 1968?
In 1968, Republican Richard Nixon became President of the USA. Richard Nixon believed that enough had been done in terms of Civil Rights and wished to draw a line under the movement.

Without effective leadership, the Civil Rights Movement drew to an end.

Although Civil Rights for black Americans had definitely been improved, black Americans certainly did not have full equality with whites.
Changes in Federal Policy
Nixon's move away from Civil Rights in 1968 saw the end of a trend in Presidents who had gradually became more and more supportive of Civil Rights.
President
Laws or Executive Orders Passed
Impact for Black Americans
Harry Truman
Executive Order 9981 (1948)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1957 Civil Rights Act
Lyndon B. Johnson
1964 Civil Rights Act
1965 Voting Rights Act
1968 Civil rights Act (Fair Housing Act)
99 Problems
Black Americans still faced a variety of problems in all aspects of their lives by 1968, showing that equality was (and still is) a long way off.
It wasn't until 1976 that the first black American won a state-wide election in the South.
Despite the Housing Act, 'white flight' continued. White Americans moving out of cities into more affluent suburbs, continuing de facto segregation.
58% of black Southerners were still in segregated schools in 1968. By 1972 this had fallen to 10%.
Some Southern states continued to run segregated transport facilities long into the 1970s.
Unemployment for black Americans remained around 10% higher than white unemployment.
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