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Integrating Quotes and Paraphrases
Transcript of Integrating Quotes and Paraphrases
quotes to paraphrases?
quotes/paraphrases to your own voice? A dramatic escalation in the number of refugees fleeing persecution or war as a result of military or dictatorial rule has triggered debate on the need for intervention. Humanitarian intervention is defined as a forceful action taken against a target government despite their opposition, in order to protect the human rights of their citizens (Buchanan, 1999). Though on the surface the concept of antagonistic action against another territory may appear excessive, it is argued that if the end justifies the means then drastic measures of intervention are an appropriate consideration, as long as ethical issues are addressed. One particularly contentious issue is who should make the decision to intervene. According to Macklem (2008), there is a concern with “the binary nature of jurisdiction identified in the UN Charter between ‘state system values’ and ‘human rights values’” (p. 369). What is right for a nation can often conflict with what is right for the people of that or another nation. At the same time the voice of the democratic public can often stymie potentially positive political intercession. This… Patchwork Humanitarian intervention is defined as a coercive action by an external agent aimed to prevent or alleviate a mass humanitarian violation within the territorial jurisdiction of a target state in the absence of local government consent (Buchanan, 1999). The main contemporary debate is concerned with “the binary nature of jurisdiction identified in the UN Charter between ‘state system values’ and ‘human rights values’” (Macklem, 2008, p. 369). ‘Patchwork’ problems Inaccurate paraphrasing:
Sentence 1 changed a couple of words to avoid having to use quotation marks – this is not paraphrasing and could be plagiarism
Lack of coherence/cohesion:
There is no logic in choice/use of quotes, and no transition or linking phrases - each sentence could be moved around and it wouldn’t matter
No personal voice:
There’s a total absence of the student’s own voice (ie: their own understanding of the issue, their argument or perspective) "Sandwich" quotes and paraphrases between your own thoughts for context and clarity Integrating Quotes and Paraphrases Remember, the only way to learn complex skills is to practice! Why do we use quotes and paraphrases? Is there a logical connection between these sentences?
Where is the writer’s voice? Background
Extension of argument
Significance Top = a sentence that is your own thought or argument, setting the context for the quote that you intend to use Middle = a paraphrase/quote (with reporting verb/ phrase or linking word) related to your thought Bottom = a sentence of your own that extends your own argument further or reflects on the significance of the quote When considering the essential skills required as a nurse, often little credit is given by the student to the area of communication. However, healthcare practitioners and researchers consistently raise the concern of risks faced by patients due to ineffective communication (Scalise, 2006). Consequently, it is in the patient’s best interest for students to engage thoroughly in activities promoting effective communication during their studies. For example: Citation Complication using inappropriate/irrelevant quotes
incorporating the quote incorrectly
placing the citation in the wrong part of the sentence/paragraph
using incorrect punctuation
omitting quotation marks with direct quotes
choosing the wrong kind of reporting verb/phrase
over-using the same reporting verbs/phrases Common Mistakes Varieties of in-text citation “In vocational faculties, such as Law and Nursing, intellectual ambitions are fused with goals of professional education” (Laster, 2010, p. 19).
Laster (2010) states that “in vocational faculties, such as Law and Nursing, intellectual ambitions are fused with goals of professional education” (p. 19).
Vocational courses offer a fusion of intellectual and professional objectives (Laster, 2010).
According to Laster (2010), vocational courses offer a fusion of intellectual and professional objectives. Direct quotes need page numbers! What's wrong here? Murray (2007) defines health as “Health is complete physical, mental and social well-being” (p.15). In Holt’s (2012, p.382) quote he stated that “schools must be places where children feel at home”. According to (Goddard, 2011) clearly states that “nurses must know when and how to intervene”. Kivung (2010) reports that in 1981 our records show that 57 men were convicted of sexual offences against women (p.238). Possible answers: Murray (2007) defines health as “complete physical, mental and social well-being” (p. 15). Holt (2012) states that “schools must be places where children feel at home” (p. 382). According to Goddard (2011), nurses must know when and how to intervene. Kivung (2010) reports that “in 1981…57 men were convicted of sexual offences against women” (p. 238). Remove unnecessary repetition Direct quote for statistics, excise irrelevant information If it's part of the sentence, it needs to go outside the brackets. Date goes after author Page reference goes after quote Paraphrasing doesn't need page numbers If it's part of the sentence, it goes outside the parentheses Action verb! Reporting Verbs Reporting verbs introduce another person’s ideas, arguments, actions, findings or beliefs:
Common: said, told
Academic: argues, claims, states, denies They can indicate:
your attitude to the ideas (positive, neutral, negative)
the author’s attitude to the ideas under consideration (positive, neutral, negative)
a particular action that the author performed Your Opinion: Neutral ‘discusses’, ‘states’, ‘observes’, ‘points out’, ‘notes’, ‘found’, ‘declares’ * Jackson (2005) declared that patient/nurse ratios should be lowered” (p. 12).
* Research (Zhang, 2003; Stenson, 2007) found that two out of three men do not actively seek preventative medical care. Negative ‘claims’, ‘assumes’, ‘alleges’ * Harrison (2001) assumes that intake of caffeine will result in addiction
* Jones (2007) claims that coca-cola has several health benefits The author's opinion Negative ‘questions’, ‘doubts’, ‘disagrees’, ‘dismisses’ * Atkinson (2010) questions whether/doubts that it is feasible to put seat belts on pets
* The NSW Ambulance Service (2012) dismisses the argument/disagrees with the claim that speed cameras are a waste of taxpayers’ money Positive ‘asserts’, ‘supports’, ‘believes’, ‘urges’, ‘upholds’, ‘argues’ * Copperfield’s 2008 report supports/upholds the suggestion that pets should wear seat belts
* Lee and Steiny (2012) assert/fervently argue that “speed cameras are a waste of tax payers’ money” (p. 98) Actions carried out ‘found’, ‘discovered’, ‘observed’, ‘examined’, ‘monitored’, ‘surveyed’, ‘conducted’, ‘concluded’ Jones (2011) concluded that “dental hygiene amongst men does not meet the standard required by dentists” (p. 25).
Hensen (2009) monitored the control group, and observed that… What is different about this example? It was determined that two out of three men do not actively seek preventative medical care (Jones, 2012). Author Prominence Theme Prominence The author(s) name(s) are included as part of your sentence, NOT in the bracketed citation. You want the author(s) names to be prominent eg:
Piaget (as cited in Mussen, 1983) concluded that the cognitive development of children involves four stages. Why? The section is about the author OR
They are renowned experts whose opinions will credibly support or build your argument Why? It’s the idea/theory/theme that is important, not who said it
You want to give the theme an authoritative/academic tone The author(s) name(s) are included in the bracketed citation, NOT as part of your sentence You want the topic/theme to be prominent
eg: In considering the concept of four stages of a child’s cognitive development (Piaget, as cited in Mussen, 1983), it could be argued that... Changing prominence 1. Remove the ‘person(s)’ 2. Replace them with one of the following: ‘Dummy’ it Passive voice Nominalisation (remember, if you remove the original verb to make it a noun, you will have to replace it with another suitable verb) Author Prominent Theme Prominent Jones (2011) concluded that dental hygiene amongst men does not meet the standard required by dentists. However, according to Lee and Steiny (2012), “speed cameras are a waste of tax payers’ money” (p. 98). Hensen (2009) monitored the control group, and observed that… The conclusion was reached that dental hygiene amongst men does not meet the standard required by dentists (Jones, 2011). One argument for their removal is that “speed cameras are a waste of tax payers’ money” (Lee & Steiny, 2012, p. 98). Monitoring of the control group led to the observation that… (Hensen, 2009). Academic Skills help Come see us in the yellow corridor! Make an appointment online:
Students/Office of Student Success/Academic Skillls/Make an Appointment Drop in: anytime the door is open! Library Hours:
Monday, Wednesday, Thursday Friday 1-2pm
Saturday 12:30-5 Workshops: Check online for topics!