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SES 5th grade cold war & space race.
Transcript of SES 5th grade cold war & space race.
By: SES 5th grade quest
John F. Kennedy
- John F. Kennedy challenged the nation's leadership role to be the first country to put man on the moon.
-He called an ambitious space exploration program
-He wanted astronauts on the moon, a Rover nuclear rocket, weather satellites, and other space projects .
-He wanted a man on the moon before the decade was out.
-John F. Kennedy died before Apollo 11 was launched.
"I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before the decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth." May-25, 1941 John F. Kennedy
Communism began in Russia with the rise of Bolshevik
party led by Vladimir Lenin.
Another major country to be ruled by a communist
government is China.
War Communism was the name given to the economic system that existed in Russia from 1918-1921.
Many concepts of communism were included in the Greek philosopher Plato's Republic.
Other communists include
Cuba, Vietnam, North
Korea, and Laos.
The Chinese government has been under fire
for years for human rights for violation. This
included many executions, detaining prisoners
without trial, and wide ranging censorship.
In the era when Mao Zedong ruled China the poverty rate was at 53%. However, China began economic reforms moving away from communism in1978 under the leadership of Deng Ziaoping. The poverty rate was down to 6% in 2001.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile crisis happened in 1962.
It happened when the Soviet Union started installing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
A spy plane flying over Cuba took pictures of long range Soviet missiles.
Cuban leader Fidel Castro was unhappy because he got left out of the talks between Kennedy and Krushchev.
Khrushchev wrote a letter to Kennedy so they would come to an agreement so they wouldn't go into war.
Kennedy announced a plan on October 22, 1962 that the United States was putting Cuba under quarantine.
The Soviet Union said they wouldn't back down, so on the 24th Kennedy thought they'd have to invade Cuba.
Space Race Starts
The Soviet Union and the United States competed for having the first manned spacecraft in orbit and the first man on the moon
The space race began in 1955 when both countries launched satellites.
October 4, 1957 was the first successful satellite launch. It was Russia's Sputnik I.
4 months later the US launched the Explorer I.
On April 12, 1961 Russian Yuri Gagarin was the first man in orbit on the Vostock I.
3 weeks later the US launched Freedom 7 with Alan Shepard who became the first american in space. He did not orbit Earth.
February 20, 1962 the US launched Friendship 7 with John Glenn who did orbit Earth.
Americans were embarrassed because they were not winning the space race!
Space Race continues
The US launched the Gemini program which helped develop technology for the Apollo spacecraft.
The Gemini program helped the US learn how to change the orbit of a spacecraft. It spent alot of time in orbit to learn how the human body would be affected.
The Gemini brought two spacecrafts together, a rendezvous, in space. This was the first time an astronaut walked outside of a spacecraft.
On July 16, 1969 Apollo 11 was launched with Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. The trip took 3 days.
On July 20, 1969 the Eagle landed on the moon. When Neil Armstrong stepped on the surface of the moon, his words were, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
The US took a huge lead in the space race!
In July 1975 the first US-Soviet joint mission occurred. It was called the Apollo-Soyez Project.
The US was the first to develop nuclear weapons.
Nuclear bombs are extremely powerful. They can destroy an entire city and can kill tens of thousands of people!
The first atomic bomb was tested by the Soviet Union on August 29, 1949.
ICBMs (intercontinental ballistics missiles) can be launched from long ranges, as far as 3,500 miles away.
Both sides, countries, made new and more powerful weapons, bomb shelters, and underground bunkers where they could hide.
The US made new equipment that could tell if a missile had been launched. New equipment was also made that could shoot down ICBMs.
Arms Race: a competition between the US and the Soviet Union to manufacture the most nuclear weapons. They also tried to out do each other in weapons technology and defense.
Capitalism: an economic system based on private ownership (rather than government ownership) and the free market system.
Communism: an economic system based on government ownership and control of resources.
Detente: a softening or easing of relations between the US and the Soviet Union.
Eastern Bloc: a name given to the Soviet Union and its communist controlled states in eastern Europe, such as Poland, East Germany, and Bulgaria.
Eisenhower Doctrine: stated that a country could ask for military support from the US if it was threatened by another country.
Glasnost: a policy introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev that allowed for more openness in the Soviet government as well as some level of freedom of speech.
iron curtain: a descriptive term of a symbol used to describe the border between the communist and democratic countries of Europe.
Marxism: an economic and political philosophy named after Karl Marx. It is the backbone of many communist governments.
Glossary part 2
McCarthyism: term given to accusations of treason or disloyalty without having evidence.
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization...an alliance of democratic and western countries including much of Western Europe, Canada, and the United States.
nuclear weapon: a device that uses nuclear forces to create a huge explosion capable of destroying an entire city.
perestroika: a term used to describe a reconstruction of the Soviet economy and industry.
proxy war: a war when two sides use third parties to fight rather than fighting each other directly.
red scare: a time of extreme anti-communism in the US. People were scared that communists had infiltrated the government.
SALT: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks...when the US and the Soviet Union agrees to limit the number of nuclear weapons they made.
Glossary part 3
solidarity: a movement in Poland to create a trade union that was not controlled by the Communist Party.
space race: a competition between the US
and the Soviet Union to explore space.
superpower: a country that is significantly stronger, especially in regards to their military, than most other countries.
Truman Doctrine: an effort to stop the spread of communism.
Warsaw Pact: an alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern Europe communist nations.