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Learning, Memory and Intelligence
Transcript of Learning, Memory and Intelligence
John B. Watson
What is Learning?
Pavlov's Dogs: Discovering
UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus) = Meat Powder
UCR (Unconditioned Response) = Salivation
CS (Conditioned Stimulus) = Bell
CR (Conditioned Response = Salivation
Human Experience #10
The Law of Effect
John B. Watson
and "Little Albert"
Still looking at Cause and Effect
How about a little association...
Of Pigeons and Persons
Human Exp. #11
Schedules of Reinforcement
Pro-Social \ Anti-Social Observational Learning
Do video games teach people to be violent?
Video: Inst. VTK
Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment
Video: Worth DVMA
The power of Social Learning
Bandura's Bobo Doll
Beyond Freedom and Dignity
Few issues will stimulate a more lively classroom debate than B. F. Skinner’s statements regarding human freedom and dignity. Ask your students whether our beliefs in human freedom and dignity are illusions. Also ask whether beliefs are obstacles to the development of a better society.
Skinner argued that denial of the fact that we are controlled by our environment leaves us vulnerable to control by subtle and malignant circumstances and by malicious people. Governments and political leaders, he contended, may seek to control us for their own benefit rather than serve our best interest. Recognizing that behavior is shaped by its consequences is the first step in taking control of the environment and ensuring that it delivers consequences promoting desirable behavior. When we demand freedom, argued Skinner, what we really mean is freedom from aversive consequences and not freedom to make choices. In the final analysis, we can have “freedom” but only by arranging our own
consequences and not by leaving it to “fate” or the “government.”
For Skinner, “dignity” was also an illusion. “We recognize a person’s dignity or worth,” he argued, “when we give him credit for what he has done.” We tend to do this when we are unable to readily identify the environmental factors that control another’s behavior. When a person makes an anonymous charitable donation, for example, we may attribute it to something inside the person, to his or her “altruism.” To credit people for doing good is to ignore the environmental factors that give rise to “good” behavior. Something in the person’s formative years has obviously shaped the desirable behavior. Only by identifying the external factors that gave rise to “doing good” can we bring them under control so that more people will do good more often. This movement toward a better society demands giving up the belief in “dignity.” Did Skinner practice what he preached? Yes, as you can see here:
And now my labor is over. I have had my lecture. I have no sense of fatherhood. If my genetic personal histories had been different, I should have come into possession of a different lecture. If I deserve any credit at all, it is simply for having served as a place in which certain processes could take place. I shall interpret your polite applause in that light.
Allen, B. (2000). Personality theories: Development, growth, and diversity (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
In real life, continuous reinforcement is rare. Sometimes responses are reinforced, sometimes not. Among the most important schedules of partial reinforcement are the fixed ratio (FR), variable ratio (VR), fixed interval (FI), and variable interval (VI). Identify the schedule in the examples below by writing your answer—FR, VR, FI, or VI—in the spaces on the left.
1. A senior citizen buying state lottery tickets and winning.
2. A hotel maid may take a 15-minute break only after having cleaned three rooms.
3. A man watches and sees shooting stars on a dark night.
4. A teenager receives an allowance every Saturday.
5. A woman checks the front porch for a newspaper when the delivery person is extremely unpredictable.
6. A professional baseball player gets a hit approximately every third time at bat.
7. A teenager checks the oven to see if chocolate chip cookies are done, when baking time is known.
8. A blueberry picker receives $1 after filling 3 pint boxes.
9. A charitable organization makes an average of 10 phone calls for every donation it receives.
10. A busy executive calls a garage mechanic to see if her car is fixed yet.
11. A student’s final grade improves one level for every three book reviews submitted.
12. A student goes to the cafeteria to see if the next meal is available.
Take a test:
Children See, Children Do...
Do you agree?
Do Video Games teach people to be Violent?
Inst. VTK (Video)
And then there are
Get out a piece of paper
put your name on the paper
Name the Seven Dwarfs
You have 30 seconds
Now discuss the Memory Process as you used it in the last exercise with a neighbor or two.
What is this:
The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do... After the procedure is completed, one arranges the material into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole procedure will have to be repeated. However, that is life (Myers, 2013, pg.279)
Memory video time!!!
Explicit and Implicit Memory
Retrieval of Memories
Give an example...
State Dependent/ Mood Congruency
Serial Position Effect
Got your paper again?
Listen to these 20 statements.
What people forget:
Why people forget:
From the text...
Thinking and Language:
Do we need language in order to think?
Tower of Hanoi
Source: Medin, D. L., & Ross, B. H. (1996). Cognitive psychology. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Your task is to move the tower from the left peg to the right peg, moving only one disk at a time and never putting a larger disk on a smaller one. According to Medin and Ross, problem solving is taking place if a person is
(a) trying to attain a goal (the three disks on the right peg arranged in the specified order), (b) starting from some set of conditions (disks on the left peg arranged from largest to smallest),
(c) with some means of transforming these conditions (moving the pegs one at a time, not putting a larger disk on a smaller), and
(d) with no immediately available knowledge of a solution (the problem is not solved in a single step).
The problem space is the problem solver’s internal representation of the problem. It has an initial state that is the representation of the givens in the problem, a goal state, which is the representation of the desired outcome, and a number of intermediate states must be “passed through” in moving from the initial state to the goal state. The problem has various routes to a solution.
What is Intelligence?
When we say someone is intelligent, what characteristics are we pointing to?
Why do Intelligent
Robert Sternberg describes 20 stumbling blocks that can get in the way of even the brightest people. They also help explain why even the best measures of intelligence may account for only small proportions of the variance in real-world performance. The stumbling blocks are worth listing in class and may even help students understand discrepancies between their scholastic aptitude scores and academic performance.
1. Lack of motivation. A talent is irrelevant if a person is not motivated to use it. Motivation may be external (for example, social approval) or internal (satisfaction from a job well-done, for instance). External sources tend to be transient, while
internal sources tend to produce more consistent
2. Lack of impulse control. Habitual impulsiveness gets in the way of optimal performance. Some
people do not bring their full intellectual resources to bear on a problem but go with the first solution that pops into their heads.
3. Lack of perseverance and perseveration. Some people give up too easily; others are unable to stop even when the quest will clearly be fruitless.
4. Using the wrong abilities. People may not be using the right abilities for the tasks in which they are engaged.
5. Inability to translate thought into action. Some people seem buried in thought. They have good ideas but rarely seem able to do anything about them.
6. Lack of product orientation. Some people seem more concerned about the process than the result of activity.
7. Inability to complete tasks. For some people, nothing ever draws to a close. Perhaps it’s fear of what they would do next or fear of becoming hopelessly enmeshed in detail.
8. Failure to initiate. Still others are unwilling or unable to initiate a project. It may be indecision or fear of commitment.
9. Fear of failure. People may not reach peak performance because they avoid the really important challenges in life.
10. Procrastination. Some people are unable to act without pressure. They may also look for little things to do in order to put off the big ones.
11. Misattribution of blame. Some people always blame themselves for even the slightest mishap. Some always blame others.
12. Excessive self-pity. Some people spend more time feeling sorry for themselves than expending the effort necessary to overcome the problem.
13. Excessive dependency. Some people expect others to do for them what they ought to be doing
14. Wallowing in personal difficulties. Some people let their personal difficulties interfere grossly with their work. During the course of life, one can expect some real joys and some real sorrows. Maintaining a proper perspective is often difficult.
15. Distractibility and lack of concentration. Even some very intelligent people have very short attention spans.
16. Spreading oneself too thin or too thick. Undertaking too many activities may result in none being completed on time. Undertaking too few can also result in missed opportunities and reduced levels of accomplishment.
17. Inability to delay gratification. Some people reward themselves and are rewarded by others for finishing small tasks, while avoiding bigger tasks that would earn them larger rewards.
18. Inability to see the forest for the trees. Some people become obsessed with details and are either unwilling or unable to see or deal with the larger picture in the projects they undertake.
19. Lack of balance between critical, analytical thinking and creative, synthetic thinking. It is important for people to learn what kind of thinking is expected of them in each situation.
20. Too little or too much self-confidence. Lack of self-confidence can gnaw away at a person’s ability to get things done and become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Conversely, individuals with too much self-confidence may not know when to admit they are wrong or in need of self-improvement.
Robert Sternberg’s Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid more fully examines why intelligent people sometimes think and behave in such stupid ways that they end up destroying their livelihood and even their own lives. Contributors to the volume—scholars from diverse research areas of human intelligence—discuss the nature and theory of stupidity, whether stupidity is measurable, and, most importantly, how stupidity contributes to stupid behavior.
Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (2002). Why smart people can be so stupid. New York: Oxford University Press.
Intelligence = How well you adapt to your environment.