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OB1105 - Ch 8
Transcript of OB1105 - Ch 8
Effective team members must be willing and able to work on the team
The 5 Cs of effective team members:
Comforting (psych support)
Smaller teams are better because:
need less time to coordinate roles and resolve differences
require less time to develop more member involvement, thus higher commitment
But team must be large enough to accomplish task
Responsible for entire work process
High interdependence within the team
Low interdependence with other teams
Autonomy to organize and coordinate work
Technology supports team communication/coordination
Cross-functional work groups organized around work processes, that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and that have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks.
Self-Directed Teams (SDTs)
Time to organize/coordinate
Belief that others are silently evaluating you
Peer pressure to conform
Suppressing opinions that oppose team norms
Tendency in highly cohesive teams to value consensus at the price of decision quality
Concept losing favour -- consider more specific features
Team Decision Making Constraints
The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members
Both cognitive and emotional process
Extent to which team composition includes people with diverse knowledge, skills, perspectives
Better for creatively solving complex problems
broader knowledge base
better representation of team’s constituents
take longer to develop
more susceptible to “faultlines”
increased risk of dysfunctional conflict
Innate drive to bond
We define ourselves by group memberships
Why Informal Groups Exist
Relies on networked computers to submit and share creative ideas
Strengths -- more creative ideas, minimal production blocking, evaluation apprehension, or conformity problems
Limitations -- too structured and technology-bound
Produces more innovative ideas
Strengthens decision acceptance and team cohesiveness
Sharing positive emotions encourages creativity
Less evaluation apprehension when team supports a learning orientation
Production blocking still exists
Evaluation apprehension exists in many groups
Provide as many ideas as possible
Build on others’ ideas
Rules of Brainstorming
Team norms should encourage critical thinking
Sufficient team diversity
Ensure neither leader nor any member dominates
Maintain optimal team size
Introduce effective team structures
General Guidelines for Team Decisions
Flexible use of communication technologies
Opportunities to meet face-to-face
Virtual Team Success Factors
Teams whose members operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks
Increasingly possible because of:
Increasingly necessary because of:
A psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intent or behaviour of another person
Motivated to remain members
Willing to share information
Strong interpersonal bonds
Resolve conflict effectively
Better interpersonal relationships
State desired norms when forming teams
Select members with preferred values
Discuss counter-productive norms
Reward behaviours representing desired norms
Disband teams with dysfunctional norms
Preventing/Changing Dysfunctional Team Norms
Informal rules and shared expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviours
Norms develop through:
Initial team experiences
Critical events in team’s history
Experience/values members bring to the team
Any formal intervention directed toward improving the development and functioning of a work team
Types of Team Building
Clarify team’s performance goals
Improve team’s problem-solving skills
Improve role definitions
A set of behaviours that people are expected to perform
Some formally assigned; others informally
Informal role assignment occurs during team development and is related to personal characteristics
Two central processes in team development
Team membership formation
Transition to “us” from “them”
Related to team as social identity
Team competence development
Forming routines with others
Forming shared mental models
Team Development as Membership and Competence
Better when tasks are clear, easy to implement
learn roles faster, easier to become cohesive
ill-defined tasks require members with diverse backgrounds and more time to coordinate
degree to which a task requires employees to share inputs or outcomes or interact while executing their work.
Make individual performance more visible
Form smaller teams
Measure individual performance
Increase employee motivation
Increase job enrichment
Select motivated employees
How to Minimize Social Loafing
Make better decisions
Make better products/services
Higher employee engagement
Individuals better/faster on some tasks
Process losses - cost of developing and maintaining teams
Teams: Advantages and Disadvantages
Occurs when team members debate their different perceptions about an issue in a way that keeps the conflict focused on the task rather than people.
Problem: constructive conflict easily slides into personal attacks
Three Levels of Trust
High task performance
Team Cohesion and Performance
Low Team Cohesiveness
High Team Cohesiveness
Team Norms Oppose Company
Team Norms Support Company
Nominal Group Technique
Groups of two or more people
Exist to fulfill a purpose
Interdependent -- interact and influence each other
Mutually accountable for achieving common goals
Perceive themselves as a social entity
Many Types of Teams
Task Force (Project) Teams
Communities of practice
Employees have similar or complimentary skills located in the same unit of a functional structure; usually minimal task interdependence because each person works with employees in other departments.
Typically multi-skilled, team members collectively produce a common product/service or making ongoing decisions; production/service teams
typically have an assembly line type of interdependence, whereas leadership teams tend to have interactive (reciprocal) interdependence.
Similar to production/service teams except (1) they are organized around work processes that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and (2) they have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks.
Teams provide recommendations to decision makers.
Temporary teams assigned to solve a problem.
Multi-skilled teams located away from an organization and relatively free from constraints.
Teams operating across space, time, and organizational boundaries.
May be informal groups, but increasingly formal teams bound together by shared expertise and passion for a particular activity or interest.
Org & team environment
Satisfy member needs
Maintain member commitment
Chapter 8 - understand types of teams, advantages, weaknesses, effectiveness, and how to make them successful
Levels of Task Interdependence
Evaluate value of membership
Defer to existing authority
Test boundaries of behaviour
Conflict with proactive behaviour
Compete for team roles
Influence goals and means
Attempt to establish norms
Team objectives agreed
Common mental models form
Task orientated, committed
High cooperation and trust
Conflict resolved quickly
shifting from task to relationship focus
Stages of team development
So, how do you make a team?
Some forms of diversity have less effect
Smaller teams more cohesive
Regular interaction increases cohesion
Calls for tasks with high interdependence
Somewhat difficult entry
Team eliteness increases cohesion
But lower cohesion with severe initiation
Successful teams fulfil member needs
Success increases social identity with team
Challenges increase cohesion when not overwhelming
How do you know when it is working?
So what are the ways to make results happen?
Pragmatic: Let's look at the facts and figure this thing out
Whatever the situation, pragmatists will ask, "What can be done?" They leave out the emotions and don't dwell on the past, saying things like, "Why did you mess this up?" They want the facts and are willing to let the facts lead where they lead, and they will accept any idea that works, whether it is theirs or their opponent's.
Self-Empowered: Here is what I am doing about it.
Self-empowered people take ownership and responsibility. They don't cast blame on others; they start by working on things they control. These people do not see themselves as powerless victims. Rather, they see a crisis as a challenge and an opportunity, and typically, they find solutions that no one thought were even possible.
Relationship Builder: First, let's get to know each other.
Before dealing with the issues leading to conflict, these people want to deal with the person; they want to make a human connection. On Monday morning when they get to work, they are likely to ask, "How was your weekend?" For them, this is a genuine question; they really want to know. They know from past experience that a human connection can get them through the tough times.
Conciliator: I know we can work this out.
The conciliator's number one belief is the old expression "win/win." Their first move is to figure out how the other person can win: if I can help you get what you want, you will help me with what I want. This is not to be confused with lose/win, where I give in to you to make you happy at my expense. It is critical to the conciliator that both parties walk away from the conflict feeling that their needs were met.
The 12 conflict styles are drawn from LSI Conflict(T), Copyright © 1990 Human Synergistics, Inc
Four roles to encourage constructive conflict
Based on common mental models and values
Increases with person's social identity with team
Based on predictability and competence
Based on deterrence
Fragile and limited potential because dependent on punishment
Other leading theories on team building, management, and decision making
Only one person can speak at one time - if you don't speak, you might forget your idea, or if you have an idea and wait your turn to speak you don't have the capacity to truely listen to the conversation.
Therefore, you don't bother bringing up an idea that might only seem silly to you.
Leaders often focus on trying to find the right answer, vs focusing on "how is my team arriving at this answer?"
Creating the right process
Bay of Pigs
Cuban Missile Crisis
Role of President Kennedy
Role of Participants
Participation and Environment
Use of subgroups
Consideration of alternatives
Institutionalization of dissent
Present at all critical meetings
Spokesman/advocates for particular departments and agencies
Deference to experts
Adherence to rules of protocol
Extreme secrecy—very small group kept “in the know”
Exclusion of lower-level aides and outsiders with fresh points of view
One small subgroup, driving the process
“The same men, in short, both planned the operation and judged its chances of success.
Rapid convergence upon a single alternative
No competing plans presented to the President
Deliberately absent from preliminary meetings
Skeptical generalists examining the “policy problem as a whole”
Minimization of status/rank differences
Freedom from rules of protocol
Direct communication between Kennedy and lower-level officials with relevant knowledge and expertise
Periodic involvement of outside experts and fresh voices
Two subgroups of equal size, power and expertise
Repeated exchange of position papers and vigorous critique and debate
Balanced consideration of two alternatives
Arguments for both options presented to the President
Two confidantes of the President playing the role of “intellectual watchdog,”probing for the flaws in every argument
A 13 minute presentation on the Bay of Pigs Event in 1961, 6:50s
Write down possible solutions
Possible solutions shared and discussed
Voting on solutions
A process on creating better brainstorming
Pg 188 - 191
Pg 192 - 194
Pg 195 - 196
Pg 197 - 198
Pg 199 - 200
So let's talk about some alternative perspectives...
The Discipline of Teams
Jon R. Katzenback & Douglas K. Smith, 2001
Five basic elements
Communicate and coordinate effectively
Establish clear roles and areas of responsibility
A sense of accountabilities
People know what the goal is, and are able to 'peer-manage' each other
People have a process to share knowledge and information
People know their responsibilities
A process is available to make quick decisions.
People have a sense of accountability to each other
A good overview of small team management, and a useful reference tool for operating virtual teams
Leading outside the lines
Jon R. Katzenback & Zia Khan, 2010
Ten years later, a revised look at managing the new employee workforce
They encourage, support deep values that inform the decisions and actions taken at all levels of the formal structure
They ensure that formal, long-range strategy is understood rationally by people working on the front lines of the operation
They retain the efficiency and clarity of the well-defined structures that define formal organizations while also capitalizing on the speed of informal social networks
They ensure that in addition to formal compensation methods, employees have emotional sources of motivation
A good overview of managing to a more participatory management style in the new workforce age.
"To believe in something, and not to live it, is dishonest"
"Its not hard to make decisions when you know what your values are"
Roy Disney, Former Vice Chairman, Walt Disney
"Rules cannot take the place of character"
Alan Greenspan, US Federal Reserve
"People don't listen to you speak, they watch your feet"
The Speed of Trust
Stephen Covey, 2006
"Values provide perspective in the best of times and worst"
Charles A. Garfield
Self Trust - beyond ethics, why personal credibility is the foundation of all trust and how to create it
Relationship Trust - how to behave yourself out of problems you've behaved yourself into
Stakeholder Trust - how to increase speed, lower costs, and maximize the influence of your organization
Smart Trust - how to extend trust, restore trust, and take the exponential leap of faith that makes all the difference...
Carol Burnett Show
Trust in relationships, 5:54s
Speed of Trust
The 5 Dysfunctions of a Team
Patrick Lencioni, 2002
Absence of trust—unwilling to be vulnerable within the group
Fear of conflict—seeking artificial harmony over constructive passionate debate
Lack of commitment—feigning buy-in for group decisions creates ambiguity throughout the organization
Avoidance of accountability—ducking the responsibility to call peers on counterproductive behaviour which sets low standards
Inattention to results—focusing on personal success, status and ego before team success
Embracing change and getting employees to execute on work effectively