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ORGB 1105 - Ch 8

Team Dynamics
by

Anthony Okuchi

on 7 October 2017

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Transcript of ORGB 1105 - Ch 8

Team development

Team norms

Team cohesiveness

Team trust
Task characteristics

Team size

Team composition
Effective team members must be willing and able to work on the team
The 5 Cs of effective team members:
Cooperating
Coordinating
Communicating
Comforting (psych support)
Conflict resolving
Smaller teams are better because:
need less time to coordinate roles and resolve differences
require less time to develop more member involvement, thus higher commitment
But team must be large enough to accomplish task
Responsible for entire work process

High interdependence within the team

Low interdependence with other teams

Autonomy to organize and coordinate work

Technology supports team communication/coordination
Cross-functional work groups organized around work processes, that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and that have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks.
Self-Directed Teams (SDTs)
Time constraints
Time to organize/coordinate
Production blocking

Evaluation apprehension
Belief that others are silently evaluating you

Peer pressure to conform
Suppressing opinions that oppose team norms

Groupthink
Tendency in highly cohesive teams to value consensus at the price of decision quality
Concept losing favour -- consider more specific features
Team Decision Making Constraints
The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members
Both cognitive and emotional process
Team Cohesion
Extent to which team composition includes people with diverse knowledge, skills, perspectives
Advantages
Better for creatively solving complex problems
broader knowledge base
better representation of team’s constituents
Disadvantages
take longer to develop
more susceptible to “faultlines”
increased risk of dysfunctional conflict
Innate drive to bond
Social identity
We define ourselves by group memberships
Goal accomplishment
Emotional support
Why Informal Groups Exist
Relies on networked computers to submit and share creative ideas
Strengths -- more creative ideas, minimal production blocking, evaluation apprehension, or conformity problems
Limitations -- too structured and technology-bound
Electronic Brainstorming
Strengths
Produces more innovative ideas
Strengthens decision acceptance and team cohesiveness
Sharing positive emotions encourages creativity
Less evaluation apprehension when team supports a learning orientation

Weaknesses
Production blocking still exists
Evaluation apprehension exists in many groups
Evaluating Brainstorming
Speak freely
Don’t criticize
Provide as many ideas as possible
Build on others’ ideas
Rules of Brainstorming
Team norms should encourage critical thinking

Sufficient team diversity

Ensure neither leader nor any member dominates

Maintain optimal team size

Introduce effective team structures
General Guidelines for Team Decisions
Member characteristics
Technology savvy
Self-leadership skills
Emotional intelligence
Flexible use of communication technologies
Opportunities to meet face-to-face
Virtual Team Success Factors
Teams whose members operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks
Increasingly possible because of:
Information technologies
Knowledge-based work
Increasingly necessary because of:
Organizational learning
Globalization
Virtual Teams
A psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intent or behaviour of another person
Trust Defined
Motivated to remain members
Willing to share information
Strong interpersonal bonds
Resolve conflict effectively
Better interpersonal relationships
State desired norms when forming teams
Select members with preferred values
Discuss counter-productive norms
Reward behaviours representing desired norms
Disband teams with dysfunctional norms
Preventing/Changing Dysfunctional Team Norms
Informal rules and shared expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviours

Norms develop through:
Initial team experiences
Critical events in team’s history
Experience/values members bring to the team
Team Norms
Any formal intervention directed toward improving the development and functioning of a work team
Types of Team Building
Clarify team’s performance goals
Improve team’s problem-solving skills
Improve role definitions
Improve relations
Team Building
A set of behaviours that people are expected to perform
Some formally assigned; others informally
Informal role assignment occurs during team development and is related to personal characteristics
Team Roles
Two central processes in team development
Team membership formation
Transition to “us” from “them”
Related to team as social identity

Team competence development
Forming routines with others
Forming shared mental models
Team Development as Membership and Competence
Better when tasks are clear, easy to implement
learn roles faster, easier to become cohesive
ill-defined tasks require members with diverse backgrounds and more time to coordinate
Task interdependence
degree to which a task requires employees to share inputs or outcomes or interact while executing their work.
Make individual performance more visible
Form smaller teams
Specialize tasks
Measure individual performance
Increase employee motivation
Increase job enrichment
Select motivated employees
How to Minimize Social Loafing
Advantages
Make better decisions
Make better products/services
Higher employee engagement
Disadvantages
Individuals better/faster on some tasks
Process losses - cost of developing and maintaining teams
Social loafing
Teams: Advantages and Disadvantages
Occurs when team members debate their different perceptions about an issue in a way that keeps the conflict focused on the task rather than people.
Problem: constructive conflict easily slides into personal attacks
Constructive Conflict
Low
High
Knowledge-based Trust
Identification-based Trust
Three Levels of Trust
High task performance
Moderately
low task
performance
Moderately
high task
performance
Team Cohesion and Performance
Low Team Cohesiveness
High Team Cohesiveness
Team Norms Oppose Company
Goals
Team Norms Support Company
Goals
Nominal Group Technique
Groups of two or more people
Exist to fulfill a purpose
Interdependent -- interact and influence each other
Mutually accountable for achieving common goals
Perceive themselves as a social entity

Many Types of Teams
Departmental Teams

Production/ Service/
Leadership Teams

Self-Directed Teams

Advisory Teams

Task Force (Project) Teams

Skunkworks

Virtual Teams

Communities of practice
Employees have similar or complimentary skills located in the same unit of a functional structure; usually minimal task interdependence because each person works with employees in other departments.



Typically multi-skilled, team members collectively produce a common product/service or making ongoing decisions; production/service teams
typically have an assembly line type of interdependence, whereas leadership teams tend to have interactive (reciprocal) interdependence.



Similar to production/service teams except (1) they are organized around work processes that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and (2) they have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks.



Teams provide recommendations to decision makers.




Temporary teams assigned to solve a problem.




Multi-skilled teams located away from an organization and relatively free from constraints.




Teams operating across space, time, and organizational boundaries.




May be informal groups, but increasingly formal teams bound together by shared expertise and passion for a particular activity or interest.
Org & team environment
Rewards
Communication
Org Structure
Org Leadership
Physical Space
Team Effectiveness
Accomplish tasks
Satisfy member needs
Maintain member commitment
Team Dynamics
Chapter 8 - understand types of teams, advantages, weaknesses, effectiveness, and how to make them successful
Diversity
Pooled
Sequential
Reciprocal
Resource
employee
employee
employee
employee
employee
employee
employee
employee
employee
Levels of Task Interdependence
Forming
Discover expectations
Evaluate value of membership
Defer to existing authority
Test boundaries of behaviour
Storming
Conflict with proactive behaviour
Compete for team roles
Influence goals and means
Attempt to establish norms
Norming
Roles established
Team objectives agreed
Common mental models form
Cohesiveness develops
Performing
Task orientated, committed
Efficient coordination
High cooperation and trust
Conflict resolved quickly
Adjourning
Disband
shifting from task to relationship focus
Stages of team development
So, how do you make a team?
Member Similarity
Team Size
Member Interaction
Similarity-attraction effect
Some forms of diversity have less effect
Smaller teams more cohesive
Regular interaction increases cohesion
Calls for tasks with high interdependence
Somewhat difficult entry
Team eliteness increases cohesion
But lower cohesion with severe initiation
Team Success
Successful teams fulfil member needs
Success increases social identity with team
External Challenges
Challenges increase cohesion when not overwhelming
How do you know when it is working?
Low task
performance
Calculus-based Trust
So what are the ways to make results happen?
Pragmatic: Let's look at the facts and figure this thing out
.
Whatever the situation, pragmatists will ask, "What can be done?" They leave out the emotions and don't dwell on the past, saying things like, "Why did you mess this up?" They want the facts and are willing to let the facts lead where they lead, and they will accept any idea that works, whether it is theirs or their opponent's.

Self-Empowered: Here is what I am doing about it.
Self-empowered people take ownership and responsibility. They don't cast blame on others; they start by working on things they control. These people do not see themselves as powerless victims. Rather, they see a crisis as a challenge and an opportunity, and typically, they find solutions that no one thought were even possible.
Relationship Builder: First, let's get to know each other.
Before dealing with the issues leading to conflict, these people want to deal with the person; they want to make a human connection. On Monday morning when they get to work, they are likely to ask, "How was your weekend?" For them, this is a genuine question; they really want to know. They know from past experience that a human connection can get them through the tough times.

Conciliator: I know we can work this out.
The conciliator's number one belief is the old expression "win/win." Their first move is to figure out how the other person can win: if I can help you get what you want, you will help me with what I want. This is not to be confused with lose/win, where I give in to you to make you happy at my expense. It is critical to the conciliator that both parties walk away from the conflict feeling that their needs were met.
The 12 conflict styles are drawn from LSI Conflict(T), Copyright © 1990 Human Synergistics, Inc
Four roles to encourage constructive conflict
Based on common mental models and values
Increases with person's social identity with team
Based on predictability and competence
Fairly robust
Based on deterrence
Fragile and limited potential because dependent on punishment
Alternative viewpoints
Other leading theories on team building, management, and decision making
Only one person can speak at one time - if you don't speak, you might forget your idea, or if you have an idea and wait your turn to speak you don't have the capacity to truely listen to the conversation.
Therefore, you don't bother bringing up an idea that might only seem silly to you.
Leaders often focus on trying to find the right answer, vs focusing on "how is my team arriving at this answer?"
Creating the right process
Process characteristics
Bay of Pigs
Cuban Missile Crisis
Role of President Kennedy

Role of Participants

Team norms

Participation and Environment



Use of subgroups

Consideration of alternatives

Institutionalization of dissent
Present at all critical meetings

Spokesman/advocates for particular departments and agencies

Deference to experts
Adherence to rules of protocol

Extreme secrecy—very small group kept “in the know”
Exclusion of lower-level aides and outsiders with fresh points of view



One small subgroup, driving the process
“The same men, in short, both planned the operation and judged its chances of success.

Rapid convergence upon a single alternative


No competing plans presented to the President
Deliberately absent from preliminary meetings

Skeptical generalists examining the “policy problem as a whole”


Minimization of status/rank differences
Freedom from rules of protocol

Direct communication between Kennedy and lower-level officials with relevant knowledge and expertise
Periodic involvement of outside experts and fresh voices




Two subgroups of equal size, power and expertise


Repeated exchange of position papers and vigorous critique and debate
Balanced consideration of two alternatives
Arguments for both options presented to the President

Two confidantes of the President playing the role of “intellectual watchdog,”probing for the flaws in every argument
A 13 minute presentation on the Bay of Pigs Event in 1961, 6:50s
Describe problem
Individual
Individual
Team
Write down possible solutions
Possible solutions shared and discussed
Voting on solutions
A process on creating better brainstorming
L01
Pg 184
L01
Pg 213
L02
Pg 213
L03
Pg 188
L04
Pg 188 - 191
Team Design
L05
Pg 192 - 194
Team Process
L06
Pg 194
L07
Pg 195 - 196
L08
Pg 197 - 198
L09
Pg 199 - 200
L10
Pg 201
L11
Pg 202
So let's talk about some alternative perspectives...
The Discipline of Teams
Jon R. Katzenback & Douglas K. Smith, 2001
Five basic elements
Understandable charter
Communicate and coordinate effectively
Establish clear roles and areas of responsibility
Time-efficient process
A sense of accountabilities
People know what the goal is, and are able to 'peer-manage' each other

People have a process to share knowledge and information


People know their responsibilities


A process is available to make quick decisions.

People have a sense of accountability to each other
A good overview of small team management, and a useful reference tool for operating virtual teams
Leading outside the lines
Jon R. Katzenback & Zia Khan, 2010
Ten years later, a revised look at managing the new employee workforce
Successful organizations:
They encourage, support deep values that inform the decisions and actions taken at all levels of the formal structure

They ensure that formal, long-range strategy is understood rationally by people working on the front lines of the operation

They retain the efficiency and clarity of the well-defined structures that define formal organizations while also capitalizing on the speed of informal social networks

They ensure that in addition to formal compensation methods, employees have emotional sources of motivation
A good overview of managing to a more participatory management style in the new workforce age.
"To believe in something, and not to live it, is dishonest"
Mahatma Ghandi
"Its not hard to make decisions when you know what your values are"
Roy Disney, Former Vice Chairman, Walt Disney
"Rules cannot take the place of character"
Alan Greenspan, US Federal Reserve
"People don't listen to you speak, they watch your feet"
Anonymous
The Speed of Trust
Stephen Covey, 2006
"Values provide perspective in the best of times and worst"
Charles A. Garfield
Self Trust - beyond ethics, why personal credibility is the foundation of all trust and how to create it

Relationship Trust - how to behave yourself out of problems you've behaved yourself into

Stakeholder Trust - how to increase speed, lower costs, and maximize the influence of your organization

Smart Trust - how to extend trust, restore trust, and take the exponential leap of faith that makes all the difference...
Carol Burnett Show
Trust in relationships, 5:54s
Speed of Trust
The 5 Dysfunctions of a Team
Patrick Lencioni, 2002
Absence of trust—unwilling to be vulnerable within the group

Fear of conflict—seeking artificial harmony over constructive passionate debate

Lack of commitment—feigning buy-in for group decisions creates ambiguity throughout the organization

Avoidance of accountability—ducking the responsibility to call peers on counterproductive behaviour which sets low standards

Inattention to results—focusing on personal success, status and ego before team success
the end
Embracing change and getting employees to execute on work effectively
Full transcript