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Heat and Cold Stress

Sports Medicine 15
by

Sandy Liberge

on 15 March 2011

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Transcript of Heat and Cold Stress

Heat Stress Dehydration Sunburn Heat Cramps Heat Exhaustion Heat Stroke Cold Stress HYPOTHERMIA FROSTBITE occurs when the body cannot maintain homeostasis
& the body temperature begins to rise Athletes need to be HYDRATED, RESTED & IN GOOD PHYSICAL CONDITION for temperature regulation to work properly! Initial Symptoms Light yellow urine
Mild Headache
Fatigue & Thirst
Reduced Endurance & Oxygen Uptake Serious Dehydration Discolouration & Irritability
Rapid Pulse
Complete Exhaustion 3 levels of dehydration 1 2 3 Mild: mucous membranes dry out, normal pulse, yellow urine, mild thirst Moderate: extremely dry mucous membranes, weak & rapid pulse, very dark urine, very thirsty feeling Severe: completely dry mucous membranes, disorientation, drowsiness, no urine output, inability to form tears, & beginning stages of shock TREATMENT The best treatment is PREVENTION! • Drink 17-20 oz. 2-3 hours before activity
• 7-10 oz. after warm-up
• 28-40 oz. every hour of play
• 20-24 oz. afterward for every pound lost through sweat
• Sports drinks in place of water is better to replace carbohydrates & electrolytes lost during intense or prolonged activity
• Adding water to a dehydrated athlete can possibly lead to hyponatremia Injury to the skin from the sun's UV rays
Medical Attention should be sought if blisters are produced
Treatment: cold washcloth & OTC pain meds
Prevention: Use SPF 15 or greater Painful, involuntary muscle spasms caused by exposure to heat & dehydration
First stage of heat illness
Caused by rapid water & electrolyte loss through perspiration
Occur mostly in calf muscles and can also affect hamstrings, quadriceps, & abdominal muscles Treatment: slow, passive stretching with application of ice; immediate fluid & electrolyte replacement condition of near total body colapse Symptoms Treatment skin that is cool moist & pale
weakness, dizziness, nausea
rapid breathing & pulse move athlete to shade
immediate fluid replacement
cooling of the body most severe: Body's thermoregulation stops MEDICAL EMERGENCY!!!!!!!!! SYMPTOMS TREATMENT hot, dry, red skin
Strong, rapid pulse
Mental confusion
Unconciousness Move to shade & cool body
Remove clothes
Ice towels
Mist & fan skin The body loses heat in 5 ways: contributing factors: Cold temperatures
High or cold winds
Dampness
Cold Water 1 2 3 4 5 respiration evaporation conduction radiation convection Rids body
with each
expiration loss of heat
through
perspiration loss of heat through transfer to a cooler object loss of heat through transfer of infrared rays into a cooler environment heat loss through air currents passing by a warm surface occurs when body heat is lost and body temp drops below normal symptoms: shivering, stomping feet slurred speech lack of coordination memory loss unconciousness @ 85 degrees f death @ 78 degrees f damage to skin tissue and blood vessels due to prolonged exposure to temperatures below 32 degrees F STAGE 1 frostnip pins and needles sensation; skin white and soft STAGE 2 superficial frostbite blistering, skin is numb, waxy and frozen, ice crystals form in cells STAGE 3 Deep frostbite freezing of blood vessels, muscle, tendons, nerves and bones •Can lead to permanent damage, blood clots & gangrene
•No feeling is experienced in affected area
•Serious infection & loss of limbs is frequent Frostbite Care Emergency care should be provided immediately. But if not available, the following steps will help: Bring individual indoors ASAP Apply warm towels or immerse the area in circulating lukewarm water for 20 mins leave blisters intact do not use hot water or hold affected area near fire offer warm fluids, never alcohol keep the area affected raised
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