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AP Art History Timeline

The art of the world and the history that influenced it.
by

Mary Tomlinson

on 7 May 2013

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Transcript of AP Art History Timeline

AND SO IT BEGINS... Prehistoric Agricultural Revolution Stonehenge Once paleolithic people discovered their ability to farm and grow food, they stopped needing to move around. Once they stopped having to move around for food, they were able to make more permanent structures, such as Stonehenge. Near Eastern Sumerians Tel-Asmar Votive Statues Sumerians were very religion-focused and wanted their souls to be in constant prayer. These statues allowed this because they're in a praying position and their eyes are open so they are always watching god. The Sumerians believed their souls inhabited these statues. Ziggurats Ziggurats were religious temples and although Sumerians were a very religious people, they also used their art for political purpose. These religious temples only allowed certain people higher up in the temple, solidifying political hierarchy. Akkadians Akkadians established first empire, so they focused more on politics than the Summerians. Victory Steele of Naram-Sin Akkadians used propaganda to support their political leaders. Here, their leader is depicted winning a battle, showing the viewers what a great ruler their leader is. Babylonian King Hammurabi of Babylonia writes first codified law. Steele of Hammurabi King Hammurabi created the first true set of laws, and to solidify their permanence and importance, he carved them into a piece of stone so the laws could be known. Hittites Assyrians Assyrians were very war-like people and wanted to show off their dominance to their enemies. The Lion Hunt To show their military dominance as well as their dominance over nature to members of their culutre as well as visiting enemies, the Asssyrians created this bas relief sculpture. Persians First major empire in recorded history. Persepolis As a major empire, the Persians were constantly conquering new land and attaining new citizens into their culture. To maintain control over these newly attained people, the Persians used grand-scale architecture that the new citizens of the Persian Empire would see when they visited Persepolis, the Capitol of the Persian Empire. This architecture accomplished a dual purpose: the grand scale showed off the magnificance of the Persian Empire to instill pride in their new citizens, and it also showed the massive power of the empire, shutting down any ideas of trying to rebel against such a powerful entity. Egyptian Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom Unification of Upper and Lower Nile Palette of Narmar This piece of relief sculpture documents the unification of the Upper and Lower parts of the Nile under one ruler, whom the Egyptians believed was a decendent from Ra, their sun god. Also set Canon of Proportions for how to depict Egyptian rulers. Egyptian Depiction of the Body: Constant!!! The Egyptians depicted the human body very consistently in art because they believed that in the after life your body would occupy the artisitc depictions of yourself. This particular manner of depicting people remained constant in Egyptian history, reflecting the authoritative rule and control over their country. Menkaure and his wife (Old Kingdom) Hatshepsut (New Kingdom) Very similar despite 3,000 year difference! Rule of Akehnaten Akehnaten Akehnaten, an atypical Egyptian ruler, boldly broke away from the Canon of Proportions so near and dear to the Egyptians. That system was so strongly a part of their tradition and gave them confidence in their power as rulers. Akehnaten had art become more fluid, more emotional and more stylized. Egyptian rulers wanted complete authoritative rule over their people. This intense authority extended to Egyptin art which, minus a few miniscule changes, remaind constant. Agean Cycladian Not a very developed culture, essentially prehistoric, most likely focused most energy on survival as opposed to art. The Harpist Not much detail or realistic accuracy in this sculpture, reflecting the simplicity of this culture. Minoan The Minoan civilization was the first civilization to be completely surrounded by water, for they lived on the island of Crete Spring Fresco Because the Minoans lived by the sea, they were fairly isolated and had little fear of being attacked because the sea gave them protection. This mindset caused them to focus more on living a relaxing lifestyle and focus more on nature, hence their depiction of nature in the Spring Fresco. Mycenean The Myceneans were a war-like people who were constantly fighting. Lion's Gate Because the Myceneans were always fighting, their architecture needed to be able to withstand an attack. They fortified their citadels and fortresses using large stones and techniques like those seen here in the Lion's Gate, since it was very difficult to knock down. Ancient Greece Dorian Dark Age City states were in a constant state of war in Greece, so not much time or thought was given to art. Dipylon Crater Archaic Period Greeks began trading with Egypt, thus appropriating Egyptian styles into their own artwork. Kouros Boy Early Classical High Classical Hellenistic After the city states banned together to defeat the Persians in the Persian War, the Greeks wanted ways to show off themselves and their intelligence and superiority. They experienced a time of peace, allowing them time to give to philosophy and art. Kritios Boy Athenian Acropolis: Parthenon Sparta and Athens began fighting and started the Polyponesian War, thus ending the High Classical period. Sparta defeated Athens with Persian help, but Philip of Macedon came in and took over. His son, Alexander (soon to be Alexander the Great) took over next. He loved Greek art, and as he conquered and spread his empire, he also spread Greek art. He kept Greek art mostly the same, except for a slight increase in the sensitivity of the art. Late Classical Pericles, a prominent Greek philosopher, set up a democracy in Athens, promoting a society of equality. Pericles also supported the arts, creating a high point in Greek art. Hermes and the Infant Dionysus After the death of Alexander the Great, Greek art still flourished in Greece as well as in the areas that he spread it to. The cultures that adopted Greek art added more emotion and drama into the art, since they didn't understand the Greek value placed on placid, emotionless expressions (for the Greeks thought emotion was weakness). The Dying Gaul Etruscans The Etruscnas traded with the Greeks during the Archaic period as well as with Egyptians THE HISTORY OF EVERY ART MOVEMENT EVER BY MARY TOMLINSON Apollo of Veii Ancient
Rome overthrow of Etruscan kings Republic Rome forms a Republic based on a system that has people vote for what they want their city to do. Empire An Empire is set up under Julius Caesar, and continued under his nephew Octavian. The Emperor is the sole leader of the Empire of Rome. Bust of a Roman Senator Augustus Primaporta Flavians After a civil war, the Flavian family seized power, and did so very authoritatively as to prevent another civil war. Focused on military. Colosseum Severans A series of Barbaric invasions put strains on the Roman Empire, and caused the Severan family, the new family of emperors, to rule very harshly to maintain control in an empire that is falling apart. Ludovisi Sarcophogus Constantine and Christianity Emperor Constantine legalized Christianity, which has profound social, political, and artisitc ramifications. Arch of Constantine The simplistic style of this pottery painting reflects the simplicity of the time period, for survival during war took precedence over artistic technique. The Egyptian influence the Greeks picked up from their trade is seen in the step forward of the man and the fit, trim body. However, Greeks inserted their own ideas through the nudity of the subject - thus glorifying the human body - and the Archaic smile. As the Greeks have more time to dedicate to thought, they are able to express their philosophies through art and get better at sculpting extremely accurate depictions of the human body. The mathematical and visual perfection of the Parthenon shows the height of intellectual acheivement from the High Classical period. Many mathematical and theoretical formulas were applied to this building, makign it a masterpiece. Alexander loved the High Classical sculpture, but with more of an emotional edge. Hermes and the Infant are having a connection through their eye contact and obviously have some sort of relationship, which is so different from the cold, removed gaze of the High Classical pieces. Also, Late Classical utilized props within the sculpture, such as the branch thing Hermes leans on. The emotion that new cultures that were appropriating Greek sculpture styles possesed a lot of emotion, such as the emotion of the dying Barbarian here. This piece was meant to arouse emotion within the viewer as well as be viewed in the round. This piece accomplishes both. Division by
Diocletian The Roman Emperor Diocletion believe the Roman Empire was getting too big for one man to control, so he decided to break up the empire into four sections with four leaders so Rome could be better managed. The Four Tetrarchs Christian
Art Byzantine Islamic Before Constantine legalized Christianity, Christians were forced to keep their art a secret in order to avoid persecution by the harsh pagan Romans. Catacombs But once Christianity was legalized, Christians were free to express themselves and their religious viewpoints freely through art. As a whole, Christian art was highly influenced by the art of Late Rome because of the proximity and ubiquity. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus The Iconoclast declared that the Byzantine icons were sacreligious and needed to be destroyed, causing an intense decrease in icons in art. Also, crusades really hurt the Byzantine economy and their culture. Emperor Justinian and Theodora were very successful leaders of the Byzantine Empire, and combined with the booming trade market in Constantinople, made lots of money. Also, the Emperor and Empress were the head of the state and the church. Emperor Justinian and Theodora Byzantine Icon Religion was extremely important to Muslims. Muslims were influenced by the intellectual advancements of the Greeks and Romans. Mosque of Cordoba Dome of the Rock Romanesque The year 1,000 AD came without the end of the world, so people finally realized that they were going to be here for a while and that structures can be permanent. There was an increase of pilgrimages during the Middle Ages. Santiago de Compostela St. Serin Durham Cathedral (transition) Gothic Abbott Suger believed churches should let in more light to reveal the light of God St. Denise Architectural advancements allowed for new innovations in architecture of Gothic churches Early Gothic: Chartres High Gothic: Rheims Cathedral Rayonnant: St. Chappelle Flamboyant: St. Maeclou The clothed figure that is taking a step forward is reflective of Egyptian influence, while the braided hair and the Archaic smile shows influence from Archaic Greece. The use of "verism" - a technique in which the artists renders subjects exactly as they seem - was prominent in art during the Roman Republic because emphasizing the old age of the Senators and how they really looked made them seem wiser and thus more likely to be re-elected to the Senate. Emperors such as Octavian were depicted very classically and ideally during the Roman Empire. This was done as a form of propaganda and to positively influence they way the public felt about the Emperor. For example, in Augustus Primaporta, Octavian looks like a military leader (breastplate), an intelligent senator (Classical robes), and a convincing orator (orator pose), all while seeming rateable (bare feet). The Colosseum was a stadium in which gladiators could fight, or the stadium could even be filled up for sea battles. This emphasis on fighting and battle for entertainment for the public reasserted the Empires focus on militarism. The chaotic composition of this sarcophagus reflects the chaos of the empire at this time. There wasn't time to focus on classically balanced compositions because the people needed to focus on strenghthening themselves against Barbaric invasions, not on time-consuming art. This new system of rulers did not focus on the individual personalities and leadership styles of each emperor; all that mattered was that they were the ruler. The anonymous quality of the depiction of these four tetrarchs shows that the individual leader wasn't that important. This simplified style of the sculpture - a huge down grade from the classical sculptures of early Rome - shows that times were hard in Rome and art was no longer on the forefront of society's mind. This triumphal arch was commissioned by Emperor Constantine and was a huge influence on Christian art. Christians liked Constantine because he legalized Christianity, and they thought the three arches within the triumphal arch were representative of the Holy Trinity. Also, the friezes on the arch were in the style of Late Roman sculpture ( bigger heads, poor proportions) and this style was taken directly into Christian art. Early Medieval Hiberno-Saxon (English/Irish) Viking Carolingian Ottonian 1,000 AD passes and the world doesn't end! Oh snap the Renaissance begins! In Italy, the city-states gain more wealth from trade and prominent families come up. These rich families begin to patronize the arts to show off their wealth. Influences from outside culture (Maneria Greca, Byzantine influence) from trading. Cimabue's Madonna Enthroned and Giotto's Madonna Enthroned In the North, Early Renaissance art focuses on religion (like in Italy, but with a stronger focus on detail. Giotto brings back linear perspective and form, predecessor to the artistic innovations of the Renaissance The Ghent Alterpiece, Jan van Eyck The early Renaissance in Italy uses linear perspective (from Brunelleschi) and brings back classical themes from Greece and Rome. Christ Handing the Keys to St. Peter, Perogio Uncertainty with the power of the Pope (The Great Schism), the Plague, and the failure of the Crusades lowered faith in the church and forced people to look to more secular things (the classics) and use those in art. High Renaissance Humanism emerges as a philosophy. Madonna of the Rocks, DaVinci The School of Athens High Renaissance also occurs in Venice. The main difference is the lack of classical influence in the painting and the focus on nature and landscape instead. The Pastoral Concert, Giorgione High Renaissance in the North Because Northern Europe is geographically removed from Rome and its classical influences, there are less references to the classics seen in Northern Renaissance art. More focus is put on landscapes. The Harvesters, Breugel Distance from the Vatican also permitted for more secular themes in art. The French Ambassadors, Holbein Baroque The Protestant Reformation is started by Martin Luther. This takes away many followers from the Catholic church, which they don't like.... The church begins their Counter Reformation to regain followers. The Calling of St. Matthew, Caravaggio The Baroque style of intense lighting and drama moved beyond Italy. The Letter, Vermeer The Scientific Revolution also has an influence on Baroque style San Carlo of the Four Fountains, Borromini Those crazy Mannerists The Protestant Reformation and sacking of Rome caused a loss of faith in the certainty and harmony of the world. The balance that was so important in High Renaissance art was mocked by the Mannerists because they believed this did not accurately portray the world. Mannerism also mocked religious events by portraying them in a skewed manner. Entombment, Perugio Feast in the House of Levi, Veronse Rococo In France, Louis XIV dies, and the aristocracy feels freed from his authoritative rule For the aristocracy of France, life was a dream because they no longer had to fear an overbearing king. Pilgrimage to Cythera, Watteau English Rococo focused on portraiture of the upper class. Blue Boy, Gainsborough Neoclassical An increase in logical thought led people to think more critically about government, leading to political revolutions in America and France. The scientific revolution led to a faith in reason, which led to a period of logic and reason called the Enlightenment, which took place in the French salons. In this time period, reason and ethics were the highest attainable virtues and art was seen as a means through which to improve society. Angelica Pointing to her Children as Treasure, Angela Kauffman Samuel Adams, Copely The revolutions led to an increase in nationalism. Oath of the Horati, David Romanticism The "reasonable" revolutions ended up bringing lots of bloodshead, so people began believing the world wasn't viewable through reason alone. Ancient of Days, Blake To break away from the industrialization that was tearing apart the natural world, Romanticists focused on the beauty of nature. The Ox Bow, Cole Like Neoclassicists, Romantics had a political message with their art. But unlike Neoclassicists, Romantics focused on the personal, individual justice side of politics. The Third of May, Goya The invention of... Photography! The first camera was invented by Dageurre, which effects art from here on out. Artists no longer needed to depict the world realistically because cameras could do that. Realism Which leads to... Realists, instead of depicting the world as it really looks, depict the world as they realistically see it. Their work doesn't necessarily "look" real, but they are portraying "real" subjects (no more mythology, Classical looks). Rejected standards of academy by not portaying classical subjects. The Gleaners, Millet The Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and class division made life difficult for many. Realist artists depicted these struggles. The Third Class Carriage, Daumiere As well as... Impressionism Art doesn't need to look real, so impressionists focused on depicting the world as the eye saw it: through little particles of light. Also gave a "quick" and "fleeting" look to their art, which played into their belief that life was short-lived and should be cherished in the moment. Also, Impressionists rejected the strict standards the academy had for art. Le Moulin de la Galette, Renoir Luncheon on the Grass, Manet Post-Impressionist Now we begin to see the modernist/avant-garde movement where artists break away from the classical definition of art. Influence from outside, non-Western cultures The Vision After the Sermon, Gaugain Night at the Moulin Rouge, Toulouse-Latrec The styles of Post-Impressionist artists differ greatly because they are all depicting the world the way THEY see it. However, there is a common theme between many of theme focusing on form and shape. Nocturne in Black and Gold, Whistler Sunday Afternoon on La Grand Jette, Seurat Basket of Apples, Cezanne 20th Century
in Europe Had many influences... Freudian
Psychology Destruction seen in WWI (and later WWII) New political idealogies, like Communism Symbolist movement in which the images artists painted had deliberate symbolic meanings. The Dream, Rousseau Surrealist movement in which artists used art as an exploration of their unconsicous. Also used to escape the craziness of the real world in the post Great War era. Dutch Interior 1 and 2, Joan Miro Fauvists used colors in a deliberate disharmonized way to capture the unruly side of nature as well as to express their view that the world was crazy. Big Ben, Derain Two types of German Expressionists: "The Bridge" viewed the world very negatively and wanted the world to go back to a more primitave state or just plain start over. Street Berlin, Kirchner The "Blue Rider" expressionist group viewed art as a way to escape from the terrible world. Large Blue Horses, Kandinsky Italian Art: The Futurist movement in Italy focused on bringing Italy up to speed with the rest of the world at the time. They were upset with their failure in WWI and wanted to catch back up. Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Boccioni Contrastingly, the Metaphysical movement wanted a throwback to the great age of Rome and were nostalgically "dreaming" of a better time. Melacholy and Mystery of a Street, Chirico Russia Pre-Communism: Supremist Movement, focused on pure feeling in art. Very abstract, wanted to get to the "ground zero" of art. Airplane Flying, Malevich Post-Communism: Used art as a part of the communist agenda. Focused on catching up with the rest of Europe technologically. Tatlin's Tower Dadaism Since the world didn't make any sense after WWI, neither did art. Fountain, DuChamp De Stihl Since the world didn't make any sense after WWI, De Stihl artists wanted to put sense and order back into the world through art. Composition in Black, White and Red, Piet Mondrain Cubism Influenced not only by WWI, but also by Post-Impressionist Cezanne (form-centered artwork) as well as Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Les Demoisselles D'Avignon, Picasso 20th Century in America Avant-Garde comes to America Armory show in New York brings in modernist European artists, influences some American artists like Georgia O'Keefe (precisionism). Light Iris, O'Keefe Realism still has a strong hold on American art. Photo realism (sucessionsim) wants to elevate photography to a higher art form. Does so by depicting real subjects in an artistic way, paying attention to composition and emotion. Migrant Mother, Dorothy Lange Knighthawks, Hopper Realism in painting sought to expose the flaws in American life. Art was also used to glorify the American lifestyle and the quintessential American worker. Steele, Thomas Hart Benton Abstract Expressionism (New York School) Architectural Movements! Art Nouveau movement contrasted against all of the technological advancements of the time and focused on bringing the unruly side of nature into art. Casa Mila, Gaudi Urbanization from the industrial revolution changed the needs of buildings and architecture had to change with it. Wainwright Building, Louis Sullivan (Chicago School of Architecture) The modern skyscraper came into existence because cities needed to fit more people into a small amount of space, so building vertically helped conquer that problem. Influenced by classical columns. Modernism comes to architecture by breaking away from all classical styles. Frank Lloyd Write and the Praire School focuses on creating completely organic buildings that coincide with the natural surroundings. Focused on horizontal as opposed to verticality. Influenced by Japanise feung shei. The Robie House, Lloyd Wright Bauhaus Movement (Walter Gropius): socialism for houses, everyone gets a house. Very simple designs so mass production is easy. International Style of Architecture Bauhaus architects kicked out of Germany because Nazis don't like their Communist message. Comes to America. The Bauhaus movement is appropriated as a style for the upper class in America. Seagram Building, Mies Van Der Rohe ("Less is more") About corporate power (completely opposite of original Bauhaus agenda). Le Courbousier appropriated the Bauhaus Movement for his own modern style for the upper class. Villa Savoy, Le Courbousier Bauhaus movement (see below under political idealogies of Europe). Bauhaus gets reinterpreted as international style in America and France (see under International Style of Architecture in America). Art Deco focuses on decorating buildings in a new, modern way. Chrysler Building Abstract movement (can't depict subject), self-expression, going against minimalist styles like De Stihl and Suprematism. Also focuses on the importance of the process of creating art, which makes something art in itself. Four Darks in a Red, Rothko Number 1, Pollock Pop Art The increased commercialism and materialism of the post-war boom was an inspiration for many artists, or an inspiration for mockery. Marilyn Diptych, Warhol Lipstick on Caterpillar Tracks, Oldenberg Hard Edge rebelled against abstract expressionism by putting control back into art. Combine sculptures by Rauschenburg. Done with seriousness of modern art, begining to look to the past again. Focuses on combining old and new. Feminism: Cindy Sherman used old film stills to show how in these modern times, women still have lesser roles in society. Untitled Still, Sherman Post-Modernism Contemporary Art Art through new mediums (film, music, dance) and combination of mediums. Animal Head Equestrian Statue of a Carolingian Ruler Post Modernist architecture set up by Robert Venturi. Playing with past styles to create new styles. Instead of getting rid of historical references like Modernists, play with historical styles. Chesnut House, Venturi High Tech Movement by architects Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano. Architecture shows off the function of the building, almost turning the building inside out. Pompidoi Center, Paris Deconstructivism takes away symmetry and balance. Very abstract looking. Able to be done because of 3-D computer software. Guggenheim Bilboa Museo, Frank Gehry THE END! Christ as the Good Shepard
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