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The End of World War I

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Sarah Jacobs

on 19 May 2010

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Transcript of The End of World War I

The End of World War I 1917: Three very important things happen:
1. Russian Revolution -->Russia withdrawals from war
2. Allies face defeat on western front
3. USA Enters the War NEW GERMAN OFFENSIVE: Plan and failure
After Russia leaves war Germany focuses on western front
Erich von Ludendorff plans offensive to break stalemate
His plans include a fast, and heavy attack on the French border
March 1918-Germany launches attack on France
By April they are within 50 miles of Paris
July 1918- Combined forces of US/France/Moroccans halt Germany advances
By September 1918 Allied forces begin counter offensive September 29, 1918-Ludendorff asks German Gov't to ask for peace Meanwhile in Germany...... German officials realize Allied Powers don't want peace with an autocratic Germany
Reforms sweep Germany in 1918
William II is forced to step down November 9, 1918
November 11, 1918-Germany signs an ARMISTICE
December 1918-communist forces in Germany attempt to sieze power and destabilize German gov't Armistice-a truce Meanwhile in Austria-Hungary... different ethnic groups begin looking for autonomy, or independent rule
Ausria-Hungary is broken into different countries
Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia
Peace Settlements
1.Wilson's 14 Points
2.Paris Peace Conference
3.Treaty of Versailles President Wilson's 14 Points
wanted lasting peace
League of Nations
reduction in armaments (armament means weapons/tanks etc.)
self-determination of nation-right of each people (ethnicity/race etc.) to have own nation Paris Peace Conference
Britain, and France had different ideas of what peace would mean
Big Three-Britain, France, USA
Italy had a small role
Germany not invited because the wanted to talk about how to punish Germany for the war
Britain-wanted Germans to pay $ for war
France-wanted revenge, security against future aggression, and payment for war (want to strip Germany of all weapons, the Rhineland, and all colonies)
USA-lasting peace, self-determination, League of Nations, and smaller German military Comprimise
Wilson gets League of Nations but allows division of German colonies in Africa among Britain and France
US/Britain/France agree to lasting alliance but US Congress doesn't approve Treaty of Versailles
Actually 5 treaties w/ defeated nations (Austria, Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey
German treaty signed June 28, 1919
Leaves Germany very unhappy... Terms of the Treaty of Versailles for the Germans
Article 231-War Guilt Clause-->forced Germany to accept blame for starting the war
ordered Germany to pay reparations-payments in $ or goods for damages done during war
had to decrease army by 100k men and decrease size of navy, also had to get rid of airforce
had to give Alsace/Lorraine to France
Had to give territory in eastern Germany to Poland
Rhineland had to become a demilitarized bufferstate
Had to give up colonies in Africa and Asia
German unhappiness with these terms coupled with economic problems in the 20s leads to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party and eventually WWII New Map of Europe Germany/Russia Lose territory
Austria-Hungary disappears
New States in Europe
Buffer state-nation used as buffer zone between two countries prone to conflict Eastern Europe
New countries left with ethnic minorities or you could say there were minorities left in the newly drawn countries

Germans left in Poland/Czechoslovakia
Hungarians left in Czechoslovakia/Romania
Poles left in Czechoslovakia
Serbs/Croats/Slovenes/Macedonians/Albanians left in Yugoslavia Ottoman Empire Divided
allies promise recognition of individual Arab states for support during war
after war Allies took "control" of territories instead
France-->Lebanon and Syria
Britain-->Iraq and Palistine (Isreal)
Mandates-a nation officially governed by another nation as a mandate on behalf of the League of Nations but not owned by another nation Legacy of War:
10 million soldiers dead
decrease in liberal ideas and rational society
resistance to progress
increased government control became way of life Finland
Full transcript