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Research in the Electronic Media

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Victoria Garofalo

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Research in the Electronic Media

1780: Discovery of electricity 1840: Invention of Radio 1860: Pony Express 1927: The First Television 1928: First Television News Broadcast 1941: First Modern Computer 1945: First Mobile Phone 1992: The Internet 1920's Broadcasters were experimenters
and hobbyists who were interested
mainly in making sure that their
signal was being sent and received 1930's Radio was becoming a popular mass medium, attracting large audiences. Advertising on the radio was the first step in the development in electronic media research. Advertisers, not broadcasters were the initiators of broadcast research. Present day Soon after, advertisers wanted information about the people who were hearing (and eventually also watching). How many people are listening?
How effective is our message? Broadcasters gained the responsibility to provide empirical information about the size and characteristics of the audiences. Then advertisers became interested in WHY people behave the way they do----this is how PSYCHOGRAPHICS was born. Nowadays, the study of electronic media research
falls into two categories:
ratings & nonratings research. RATINGS 2 majors companies :
Nielsen Media Research for television
Arbitron (mainly for radio) The United States of America is divided into 363 metropolitans (also called markets).

210 markets are used to conduct TV ratings
238 are used to conduct Radio ratings Founded in 1945.
World largest market research company.

Clients: cable TV, regional, local, agencies, etc. Nielsen Media Research 2 types of data collection:
Diaries & Electronic meters Metered data is used for measurement report : National Television Index, National Station Index Two types of meters: Set Meter &People Meter
Set Meters allow researchers to know which channel people watch.
People Meters allow researchers to have information about the people watching. Arbitron was founded in 1949.
Its core business is local market radio.
In 1998 the company started to track online radio. Arbitron 2 types of data collection:
Portable People Meter & Diaries Rating Methodology

Diaries & Electronic meters

According to a census from 2009 there are 114.5 million houses in the United States used for research.

To sample them there are four stages:
counties -> block group -> certain block -> households

People are recruited by telephone.
Each rating service has a formula to establish sample size. Data Collection-People meter-Diaries-Phones-Telephone coincidental "An audience rating is the percentage of people or households in a population with a television or radio tuned to a specific station, channel, or network." Interpreting Ratings Formula: rating * = household watching the program /population sample

* rating for the sample. To interpret ratings companies look at different measurements for Television:

The HUT ( Home Using Television)
The total rating
Rough Population Households Estimate
Exact Population Households Estimate
VPHH ( Viewers per Households)

For advertisement agencies have formula used to determined prices depending on the audience size . Nonratings research provides information about what the audience likes and dislikes, analyses of different types of programming, demographic and lifestyle information about the audience, and more.

These data provide decision makers with information they can use to eliminate some of the guesswork involved in giving the audience what it wants. Nonratings Research Nonratings Research Methods: Program Testing Music Research Radio programmers use two primary research procedures: auditorium music testing and callout research.

Auditorium Test: are designed to evaluate recurrents ( popular songs of the past few years) and oldies (songs older than 10 years). oIn this method, between 75-200 people are invited to a large room usually a comfortable location that allows researchers to test several hundred hooks in one 90 to 120 minute session. Programming Research & Consulting Several companies conduct mass media research, although they specialize in specific areas, they have a common goal: to provide management with data to use in decision making
Usually 200 to 600 hooks are tested. -- Which are short segments of several songs

Callout Research: used to test new music on air (currents).
In this method, participants are randomly selected and are called on the telephone.

Both procedures provide program directors and music directors with information about the songs the audience likes, dislikes, is tired of hearing, or is unfamiliar with. These companies offer custom research in almost any area of broadcasting—from testing call letters and slogans to air talent, commercials, music, importance of programming elements, and the overall sound of a station. Broadcast consultants work with research data to help a station's management team design its overall strategy.
*They usually have experience in the area and offer their services to radio and television stations. To interpret ratings companies look at different measurements for Radio:

The TSA, DMA and MSA ( Total Survey Area, Metro Survey Area and
Designated Survey Area)
The AQH ( Average Quarter-Hour)
The cume (cumulative audience)
The TSL ( Time spent listening)
The GRPs ( Gross Rating Points)

The GRP are total of station's ratings during two or more day-parts
and it estimates the size of audience.
Advertising purchases are often made via GRPs. *Since programs and commercials are expensive to produce program testing is a way for producers and directors to gather preliminary reactions to a planned project.

*One way to collect preliminary data is to have respondents read a short statement that ask them for their opinions about the idea, their willingness to watch the program, or their intent to buy the product based on the description. TWO AND A HALF MEN
HOW DID THESE RANK ON NIELSEN? 3 States of development to test products:
-Idea or Plan
-Rough Cuts
-Post production Research in the Electronic Media
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