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Topic 1 OPEN SOURCES AND LINUX FUNDAMENTALS
Transcript of Topic 1 OPEN SOURCES AND LINUX FUNDAMENTALS
Open Sources Technology
can be defined as software distributed under a licensing agreement which allows the source code (computer code) to be shared, viewed and modified by other users and organizations.
Licensed under the General Public License (GPL), open source solutions give customers the flexibility to freely use software without the cost of being locked into any particular vendor's proprietary technology.
Software whose source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees.
A set of rules and specifications, which collectively describe the design or operating characteristics of a program or device, that is published and made freely available to the technical community
The terms "open" and "standard" have a wide range of meanings associated with their usage. There are a number of definitions of open standards which emphasize different aspects of openness, including of the resulting specification, the openness of the drafting process, and the ownership of rights in the standard.
Open Sources Software
Closed Sources Software
OSS vs CSS
is based around the idea that the user can not only view, but change the source code of an application.
is hidden to prevent the user either viewing or changing the code
FREEDOM IN OSS
The freedom to run the program, for any purpose
The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish
The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor
The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits
Richard Stallman launched the GNU Project
The Linux kernel, started by Linus Torvalds, as freely modifiable source code
the first version of the GNU General Public License was published
some GNU developers formed the company Cygnus Solutions
KDE was founded by Matthias Ettrich.
Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, and was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite today better known as Mozilla Firefox and Thunderbird.
Sun Microsystems released the StarOffice office suite as free software under the GNU LGPL. The software was renamed OpenOffice.org, and coexists with StarOffice.
HISTORY OF OSS
OSS Web Resources
The recognized standards bodies that published the standards rules
IETF & ITU-T refer their standards as “open standards” and allow “reasonable and non-discriminatory” patent licensing fee requirements.
Open Standards are free for all to implement, with no royalty or fee. Certification of compliance by the standards organization may involve a fee.
Open Standards create a fair, competitive market for implementations of the standard. They do not lock the customer in to a particular vendor or group.
Open Standards may employ license terms that protect against subversion of the standard by embrace-and-extend tactics. The licenses attached to the standard may require the publication of reference information for extensions, and a license for all others to create, distribute, and sell software that is compatible with the extensions.
Open Standards and the organizations that administer them do not favor one implementer over another for any reason other than the technical standards compliance of a vendor's implementation
Open Standards are available for all to read and implement.
PRINCIPLES OF OPEN STANDARDS
Maximize End-User Choice
OPEN STANDARD EXAMPLES
Types of OSS Licenses
are available to accredited educational institutions, including vocational/trade schools, colleges, universities and institutions, and to individual students and teaching staff.
it available to legal entities, including companies and organizations (both for-profit and non-profit), requiring the software for general commercial use.
are designed for organizations which are: non-profit, non-government, non-academic, non-commercial, non-political and secular.
The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) allows people to redistribute certain software, but not change its contents. This license is often used for distributing libraries that other application programs depend upon.
The Mozilla license covers use and redistribution of source code associated with the Mozilla Web browser and related software.
The Berkeley Software Distribution License allows redistribution of source code, with the requirement that the source code keep the BSD copyright notice and not use the names of contributors to endorse or promote derived software without written permission.
The MIT license is like the BSD license, except that it doesn’t include
the endorsement and promotion requirement
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