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Music 101 How to Listen to Music

The FUNdamentals of music and how to listen to music
by

Andrew Moran

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of Music 101 How to Listen to Music

Music is…
Music vs. Noise
Music is Universal,NOT a Universal Language
Folk vs. Classical vs. Popular Music
First Impressions:
What stands out?
Remember your gut feeling.
Experiential associations
Relate sounds to something you know
How to Listen to Music
Four Properties of Sound
Quality (Timbre or Aural Color)
Pitch (Tone)
Duration (Rhythm)
Volume (Dynamics)

Timbre
Color of a sound
Medium
Voice/Instrument/Both
Solo/Ensemble
Organology
Sachs-Hornbostel System
European tradition of classification
Ethnocentrism – The unconscious assumption that one’s own cultural background is “normal,” while others’ are “strange” or “exotic.”

Vocalists may feel the nasal sounds and tight throat that we will listen to are not pleasant or the instrumentalist that only listens to Western orchestral instruments will not care for the sounds of instruments of other cultures. Hopefully, with additional knowledge about one’s culture, we can accept each music on its own terms.
Organology – The study of musical instruments
European tradition of classification, instruments are divided into five basic categories:
strings
winds
brass
percussion
keyboards.
Strings:
Viola
Cello
Violin
Double Bass
Viola
Cello
Violin
Double Bass
4 Major Wind Instruments:
Flutes
Oboes
Clarinets
Saxophones
Flutes:
Piccolo
Flute
Alto Flute
Bass Flute
Contra Bass Flute
Double reed
Oboe
English Horn
Bassoon
Contra-bassoon
Clarinets
Clarinet
Bass Clarinet
Contra Bass Clarinet
Saxophones
Soprano
Alto
Tenor
Bass
Brass:
Trumpet
French Horn
Trombone
Tuba

Trumpet
French Horn
Trombone
Tuba
Brass Ensemble
Percussion:
Pitched
Non-pitched

Keyboards
Piano Forte
Harpsichord
Organ

Aerophones:
Flutes
Reeds
Trumpets
Chordophone:
Lutes
Zither
Lutes:
Bowed vs. Plucked
Fretless vs. Fretted
Zither:
No neck
Plucked vs. Struck
Idiophones:
Melodic vs. Rhythmic
Plucked, Struck, or Shaken
. Plucked – type of lamellophone (lamella tongue or prong) that is flexed and then released causing a brief sound. A music box with keys is an example of a lamellophone
Struck – includes anything that can be struck. Examples are gongs, bells, woodblocks
Shaken – most are rattles with a hollow center that is filled with small objects such as pebbles, seeds, or sand.
Membranophones:
Struck with the hand
Struck with a stick or other device
“Rubbed” or “Singing” membranes
Pitch:
Definite vs. Indefinite
Tuning System
Scale - Interval - Range
Melody
Melodic Contour
Text Setting
Syllabic vs. Melismatic
Rhythm:
Beat - Tempo
Accent
Meter
Duple/Triple
Free Rhythm
Rhythmic Density
Phonic Structure:
Monophony
Polyphony
Homophony
Independent Polyphony
Heterophony
Simultaneous variationsof the same line of music
Dynamics
Form
“Blueprint” of music over time
Extra-musical associations
History, religion, other art forms, etc
Electrophones:
Newest form of instrument classification
Any instrument that uses electricity to produce a sound
Music is a Cultural Creation
Insider/Outsider Perspectives
Value Systems & Hierarchies
Identity Issues
Use vs. Function
Spirituality & Ethics
Modernism/Post-Modernism
Technology
Related Arts
Pedagogy
Notation
Exchange & Adaptation
Example of Transmission and adaptation

Greek - Roman - Islamic Empires
Crusades - Ottoman Empire
Musical Exchange
Theory & Performance Styles
Instruments
Kemence - Lyra
Ud - Lauto
Turkish Kemence
Greek Lyra
Turkish Ud
Greek Lauto
Full transcript