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Michael isawsome

on 27 May 2013

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Transcript of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology's Basic Tools and Materials The 2 Microscopes of Nanotechnology The STM came first; it was invented in 1980 by IBM researchers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer in a German lab. This was a great invention that went down in history because using it, human beings could see individual atoms and molecules for the first time ever.
Four years later, IBM realized STMs didn’t just record images. They experimented with increasing and decreasing the strength of the current running through the needle, and realized they could push and pull individual atoms and molecules into place. Now nanotechnology was no longer a dream, but a reality. Unfortunately, a major drawback was that it only worked on metal surfaces, and this was sometimes very annoying for researchers. Just 5 years afterward, just half a decade after their first breakthrough, Gerd and his team of researchers pulled off the impossible again: they developed the worlds first AFM. AFMs are still the most preferred tool for nanotechnology today. The 2 basic tools of nanotechnology are the atomic force microscope (AFM) and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).First let's take a look at the scanning tunneling microscope. The basic materials of nanotechnology Here are some basic materials of nanotechnology. Here is the Buckminster Fullerene, or Buckyball. The carbon nanotube is basically an elongated buckyball, also made up of carbon atoms, as shown in the picture above. Now is when things get really exciting. 8 years ago, in August 2005, researchers figured out how to make a material harder than diamond. They got ordinary carbon nanorods and...
heated them up to a sweltering 5400 degrees Fahrenheit (300 degrees Celsius)]
crushed them with a massive weight of 1430 tons.
This material was found to be 10% harder than diamonds, 3% denser, and currently holds title of hardest known substance. This material became known as aggregated carbon nanorods, or ACNR. In 1991, scientist Samio Iijima discovered the world's smallest wire ever. This discovery may pave the way for future nanobots. More Materials of Nanotechnology Scientists are experimenting with nanofabrics, fabrics with seemingly supernatural powers. One of these scientists is David Sloane of the University of California.
The way it works is, the nanorods bonds the fibres inside a piece of fabric to create a “nanobarrier” that keeps stains from sinking in. Scientists are also mixing oils with nanopolymers to create “nanofuels.” They discovered these nanopolymers in fuels reduced the friction made by regular fuels by about 55%, more than half the amount, and a lot in terms of engine friction. Promoting longer engine life and smoother engine operation, nanofuels makes the car's life longer too. In 2004, researchers at the University of Manchester in England created a material called graphene that was only an atom thin. This impossibly thin material could be used in the future construction of many practical structures in the nanoworld, like how paper is a big part of our lives today. Also occurring in 2004, a researcher at the Stanford University made a tiny computer transistor by rolling up a sheet of carbon into a nanotube. Not just for conserving space, the nano-transistor made computers much faster, efficient, and increased storage capacity because they can shut and open the electrical current much quicker. Imagine driving a car that won't even dent when you crash, wearing cotton shirts that are impregnable to liquids, or purchasing sunscreen clear as water Today, this kind of stuff is already possible because of nanotechnology. The modern field of science known as nanotechnology is basically building matter and creations atom by atom, molecule by molecule, or particle by particle, similar to building lego brick by brick.
54 years later, in 1959, American nuclear scientist Richard Feyman predicted nanotechnology would develop immensely over the years, a decade and a half before anyone else even used the word. In a famous speech titled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” Feyman explained his theory of how a scientist in the future might be using tools so small he could rearrange atoms, move them around, and practically do anything with them.
Even today, Richard Feyman is still considered the father of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology goes a long way back, all the way to ancient Greece. In 1974, his theory was eventually given a name by Professor Norio Taniguch of the Tokyo University of Science. He created the word nanotechnology to describe the manufacture of materials and objects so small they could only be measured on the nanoscale. The name and idea finally caught on in the 1980s. An author and scientist called Eric Drexler was an important influencer of nanotechnology. The Top Down method and the Bottom up Method There are two main ways of building nanostructures: the top down method and the bottom up method. The top down method is to carve away at an object or material to make the desired object. Two objects that are made this way are : The bottom up method is the exact opposite of the top down method. Instead of breaking apart molecules or scratching away at a material, the bottom up method is building things molecule by molecule or piece by piece (like building a Lego toy or eating a Kinder egg to get the toy inside). Nanomachine parts and components are made this way, like buckyballs and carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology may play a big role in future medical products and procedures.
However, even today many nano engineered products are available in the medical field, like skin cream.
Many nano medicines have this type of characteristic: the particles in them have been nano engineered to be attracted to the source of a sickness and can get there faster by passing through places in the human body normal medicine can't. Even better are the results of some cancer researchers at Rice University, Arizona. They created microscopic hollow golden spheres that were programmed to seek out and latch onto cancerous cells. The best part about this treatment is because unlike chemotherapy, the sphere destroy only the cancer cells and not the surrounding good cells. The team first experimented with cancerous mice, and the results were even better than expected. Unfortunately, further testing will be necessary before the procedure can be attempted on human patients. Here are some weird and wonderful things in the medical field that nanotechnology has made possible Still at the experimental stage, the grand variety of nano capsules scientists have created can help people with diabetes or supply a needed chemical. Two of these capsules are a drug capsule that can sense sugar level changes in the bloodstream and supply insulin, and another is a tiny cylinder that can sense when living tissue needs a chemical, and then releases some. Nano coatings on prostheses or artificial joints would make them much smoother and better fitting, and thats important because amputees walk with prostheses every day. The tiny micro spinner may power future nanobots and is essentially a bottle shaped engine with a propeller sticking out one end. It's powered by a chemical reaction inside the bottle shaped part. Imagine one day you cut yourself and just need to slap on a band aid without cleaning or disinfecting the cut. Someday, antibacterial bandages will have particles of silver inside them to clean and close wounds. In the future, scientists hope to fabricate nanobots to perform extremely precise surgeries, repair damaged tissue, or march through the human body to destroy sickness or disease. There are two main size groups of nanobots that go into the human body: One nanobot that is already designed (by Robert A. Freidas, Jr.) is the respirocyte. The respirocyte is another sphere-shaped nanobot with a durable diamond construction, designed to help people with respiratory, or breathing problems. The theory is that a person who just had an injection of respirocytes can stay underwater for an entire hour without breathing. Another nanobot that is still a design is a three-legged nanobot designed to seek out and destroy cancerous tumors. It would be programmed to latch on to a cancerous tumor with its three legs and stick a hollow needle into it. Then, it would pump a drug into the tumor that stops its growth. Initially, I've mentioned that nanobots may someday be able to repair damaged tissue, but scientists are planning something much more extreme. For treating severe diseases, DNA-based nanobots are usually created because they are friendly to the body. Researchers at the Harvard Medical University have recently created what they call an ``origami nanobot.`` Other materials are also used, like gold. This is the material scientists at the Northwestern University used to make the nanostars. The researchers claim the star shape increases the precision of drug deposits because the drugs are secreted through the points of the star whereas the normal sphere shaped drug delivering nanobots deposit the drugs from anywhere on their surface Protein based drugs are proving useful to scientists to send signals to certain cells (like triggering cell suicide in leukemia cells). The big problem is, the body’s defenses usually break down the proteins before they reach their intended destination. So now some researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have built some nanoparticles that can produce green fluorescent protein (GFP) and luciferase exposed to UV light on demand. They’ve already tested the idea on mice and have published the experiment on a recent issue of Nano Letters. Nanotechnology and The Medical Field Space Travel and Transportation! Ever since 1969, people have been going into outer space. When Lance Armstrong landed on the moon, he called it a "small step for man, but a giant leap for mankind." Now, NASA believes he next giant leap will be small, really really small.Today, a space exploration robot called the ballbot has already been designed and is a beetle sized sphere shaped robot. NASA may fabricate these ballbots in the future, but NASA believes nanotechnology will do much more for astronomy than just miniaturizing mars rovers. Instead, they plan on making computer microchips invulnerable to the extreme temperatures of outer space, nanomachines and cancer detecting gadgets, and a space elevator leading straight to the International Space Station Sitting in the middle with all the big ideas revolving around it is the carbon nanotube. The carbon nanotube is revered for being 100 times stronger than steel, only a 6th as heavy, and better at conducting electricity than copper. NASA funded Ames Center of Nanotechnology has figured incorporating them into computer chips greatly reduces the extreme temperatures of outer space and they are a key component in a device that can detect radiation in space. These devices may be available for commercial sale in the future to cool down super computers or sense radiation at home. Director Meyya Meyyappan and the 50 other workers there are now looking into DNA sequencers, chemical and cancer sensors, and super computers. Everyone knows that cars emit a large amount of greenhouse gases. The earth is filling up with it, the government is trying to control it, but it's still filling up the earth with it. Car manufacturers beleive nanotechnology is going to be the next big breakthrough. Currently some international stats are... The first impact nanotechnology had on vehicles was... Paints AND Coatings Another use nanotechnology has for cars is nanofibres can be incorporated into ordinary plastics and metals, which will make the perfect material for outer panels of road vehicles The first car company to incorporate this new technology into their products was GM (General Motors). Aircraft can be affected because... Imagine one day people can live in the most remote and harsh environments on earth, like in the desert. Some day, it may be possible to do this. A future self supporting habitat in the desert may have... The future applications for space has incredible possibilities, and NASA has funded an organization called NIAC (NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts) especially for them. Fuel Tanks Chris Phoenix of the Center of Responsable Nanotechnology states (in a really long 112 page report)...
a nanofactory called the NIAC could possibly produce spacecraft parts that fit to the atomic level
these parts would be incredibly resilient and never need cleaning or servicing In another popular approach to nanotechnology, called bio nanotech, Constaninos Mavroidis of the Computational Bionanorobotics Laboratory at Northwestern University in Boston believes instead of building stuff atom by atom it would be more efficient if you add on to existing nanomachines nature has already given us, like enzymes and proteins. Welcome to the world of nanotechnology. In this presentation, be prepared to encounter materials harder than diamond, nearly indestructible nano fabrics, and a space elevator tour. While listening, keep this question in mind: "Do you think nanotechnology will revolutionize our future world in everyday life?" He predicted one day we would create armies of protein nanorobots only a few molecules in width that would be able to march through the human body to repair damaged tissue or regrow amputated limbs. Of course, when many others heard this they thought "yeah right, you're going crazy" but today we realize his ideas may be possible because of... Computer chips Nano engineered Sunscreen So far, all of the ideas in Mavroidis's studies are futuristic. 2 of them are: A web of hair thin treads able to be draped over an alien terrain to map it with maximum detail A "second skin", a layer of bio nanotech material astronauts can wear under their space suits A space elevator is what NASA beleives will revolutionize space tourism in the future. Apparently, they aren't going completely Willy Wonka. David Smithermen of the NASA Marshall Advanced Projects Office already has some construction blueprints. After the 1999 meeting at the Marshall space center with government scientists and engineers, a space elevator was concluded to be a very strong cable running from a very tall base tower on earth to a destination in space. The location was chosen to be somewhere on the equator because The big block in this big idea was that most materials weren't fit for the construction of the cable: 2 Random Facts of Nanotechnology in the Future For future medicinal procedures, scientists in the Czech Republic have discovered how to weave hyaluronic acid nanofibre into a supportive material. Vladimi Valeby, CEO of the material’s designer, Contpro, says it supports tissue healing after surgery or an accident. The fibres can be made to dissolve over any period of time. In the future, scientists hope to make this material part of a drug delivery system. Color changing fabrics and clothing may also be a possibility in the future. Scientists have figured out how to embed nanocrystals into a fabric that changes shape when an electrical current is sent through it. When it changes shape, it also reflects light differently, therefore changing the color Conclusion And so this is the end of my presentation, and I hope you learned something new about nanotechnology. Thank's for listening! And now for the class activity. Nanotechnology in the Future!
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