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The Romantic Era

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The Group

on 4 June 2010

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Transcript of The Romantic Era

The Age of Romance 1798-1832 Ben Anonick Anna Krispin
Becky Avila Andrea Partenio
Sarah Jennings Sylvia Yacoub
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW George III Not a capable king
Loss of colonies blamed on him
Declared mentally insane in 1811
His son George ruled until King George died in 1820
Reign of Terror Radicals massacred and persecuted thousands of French aristocrats and middle class
English citizens became aware of the social conflicts facing their country Initially many felt sorry for the French
When the moderate revolutionary party lost power to a radical faction, English sympathy dwindled
Resisting Reform Many social conflicts affected society
New industrial centers had no representation in Parliament
Growing cities suffered from crime and poor sanitation

The overseas empire began to crumble
- Corruption in India
- Slave trade
Reform delayed due to fear of anarchy in France
England became very conservative
- Basic rights became restricted
War with France In 1793 Britain entered into war with France
Lasted for 25 years
Irish rose up against the British controllers
Rebellion was silenced due to weather The threat of a French invasion through the Irish still remained
William Pitt persuaded Parliament to pass the Act of Union in 1880
Ireland became represented in Parliament
The British Isles became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Napoleon Took French rule by force
Clever militarily
Constantly put Britain under threat of invasions
Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
- British fleet destroyed by French navy
1814 - Napoleon captured and exiled to island of Elba
Diplomats met at Congress of Vienna concerning Europe's fate
Napoleon defeated at Battle of Waterloo (1815) Industrial Revolution Additional prosperity to middle and upper classes
Factory workers had very little
Living and working conditions were awful for lowest class
Laissez faire
- Government stays out of economy!
No regulatory laws passed
- Concerning factory safety, working . hours, wages, or child labor
No control of boom-bust cycles Luddite Riots Start of Regency
- George II's son ruled England
Economic depression = job losses
Fewer workers needed due to more efficient equipment
Unemployed factory workers rioted in multiple countries
- Smashed machinery that took their jobs
Government didn't stop them
In the House of Lords
- Lord Byron spoke sympathetically of the rebels
- 1/3 of members to vote against new law
Postwar Issues Post Battle of Waterloo -- unemployment increased
Tory government passed Corn Law
- Taxed grain imports
- Devastated poor and unemployed Factory workers joined together to pool resources and fight for better conditions
Labor unions were illegal
Government troops were called in to suppress meeting The Peterloo Massacre 11 people killed in St. Peter's Field, Manchester
Pun on Battle of Waterloo Time for Authors! Main Authors:
William Wordsworth
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
William Blake
Robert Burns
Lord Byron
Percy Brysshe Shelley
John Keats
Heinrich Heine William Wordsworth (1770-1850)
Lost 2 of 5 children to early deaths
Mother died when he was 7
Dad sent him away to school at Hawkshead
Fell into depression after not being able to see his lover and kids
Very close to his sister, Dorothy, and Coleridge
Married Mary Hutchinson in 1802
He became popular in the 1820’s
1843 was recognized with poet laureateship
Helped launch English romantic movement
Refused to publish The Prelude during his lifetime
Writing focused on simple things
Major works:
- Lyrical Ballads (1798)
- The Prelude
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) Was drawn to supernatural by age 5
Youngest of 10 kids
Felt reject by mother
Insecure and lonely constantly
A great conversationalist
The most influential literary critic of his time
Wrote poetry while walking
Wanted to create a utopia in Pennsylvania (with Robert Southey)
Influenced most by Wordsworth
Major Works:
- Lyrical Ballads
- The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
- Kubla Kahn
- The Fall of Robespierre (with Robert Southey)
William Blake (1757-1827) Saw vision of angels and monks when young
Started writing poetry when 12
Attended art school when 10
Read the Bible
Looked up to John Milton
Felt the church was used as a political device
Works were prophetic
Unappreciated until 100 years after death
Work to know: A Little Boy Lost
Robert Burns (1759-1796) aka the Ploughman Poet Scotland’s favorite son
Hard childhood (poor/ labor)
Outgoing as a child
Hated Scotland’s class system
Multiple illegitimate children
Wrote from a Scottish peasant’s perspective
Influenced many Scottish poets, Allan Ramsay and Robert Fergusson
Burns Suppers (haggis, whiskey, and a toast to women)
Jane Austen (1775-1817) Wrote about the land she knew
Only enjoyed success for a few years then died
Works to know:
- Pride and Prejudice
- Sense and Sensibility
George Gordon/Lord Byron (1788-1824) Kept wild and exotic animals as pets
Worked out and dieted
Supported social reform
Helped free Italy from Austrian rule

Symbol of the romantic period
Like a celebrity
Some Works:
- Don Juan
- Childe Harold’s Pilgrimmage Percy Byshhe Shelley (1792-1822) Vegetarian
Opposed all injustice
Wanted to change the world
Unpopular during his time (too radical)
Eloped at 16
Published two gothic novels while a teen
Works to know:
- “Ode to the West Wind”
- “To a Skylark”
Mary Shelley (1797-1851)
Daughter of intellectual rebels
Eloped at 16 to Percy
Work to know: Frankenstein
John Keats (1795-1821) Early death
Father and mother died early
Was going to be a doctor
Engaged to Fanny but never married Wrote all of his masterpieces at 22
Work to know:
- "When I have Fears that I may Cease to be"
Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) Law degree
Converted to Protestantism unwillingly
Unreturned love from his cousin Amalie
German native
Appreciated during his lifetime

Simple, musical style similar to Blake
Showed interest in writing poetry over all else
Criticized Germany in essays
Works banned from Germany in 1835
Know: The Book of Poems
Honorable Mention William Godwin
Leigh Hunt
Sir Walter Scott
William Hazlitt
Robert Southey Dorothy Wordsworth
Charles Lamb
Thomas De Quincey
Now... Literary Movements! Emphasis on:
- individual
- emotion
- nature
- commonplace
- imagination
Lyrical Ballads and the Lake Poets Published in 1798
William Wordsworth
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/library/adopt-a-book/wordsworth.htm The Late Romantics
Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley
The “Second Generation” of Romantic poets
Novel of Manners A novel that illustrates the customs of the time period, which often drive the plot
- an unmarried woman cannot be alone with a man
- a gentleman must never smoke around ladies
Example of one of these novels: Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
http://movies.about.com/library/weekly/blprejudice102105.htm Historical Novels Novels looking back on “simpler” times
Often revisited Medieval period http://lbj89.tripod.com/ Gothic Novels Often contain:
- creepy settings
- supernatural elements
- gloomy mood
- sensational events
- nature as an influence
Exists in horror/romance genres today
Familiar essays (personal essays) focused on personal experiences and were very popular
Essays Key Points Characteristics of Romantic poetry/literature
Descendants of Gothic fiction
- Novel of Manners
- Historical Novel
Fashion of the Romantic Era
From head to toe
1798-1832 Women's Fashion Hair styles of 1802, 1806, 1805 and 1805
Pseudo-Greek hairstyles peaked at the coronation of the Emperor Napoleon in 1804.
Greek inspiration! Hair styles of 1815, 1820, 1829 and 1835
- Parted in the middle
- Back arranged in a knot
- Side curls beside the face
HATS Hats from the early 1800's - 1802, 1802 and 1806
Hats grew wider from 1816 to 1830. Hats are from 1816, 1827, 1817 and 1830. Hair and hats went from simple to extravagant.
Hats ranged small caps to enormous ribbon covered bonnets.
At night exotic turbans were seen.
In 1800 caps were worn in the day by older ladies
- By 1820 young people wore them in the day. Time to accessorize! Wore a limited amount
Dainty necklaces
Combs and jeweled hair ornaments
Braided hair dressed with combs
Jewels The Invention of the purse AKA the Reticule Handbag
New accessory starting in the 1790s
- Women had carried their pockets by their ' waist when their gowns were big enough to hide
With thin, form fitting, empire waist gowns, pockets were not hidden as well
Reticules were small decorative purses, similar to evening bags of today. Dainty Parasols “Folding small fans, and shot silk or taffeta parasols with ivory handles were used as decorative, rather than functional accessories” (Weston, Thomas).
Like mini umbrellas; used for both looks and for shade
Protection from sunburn
Sunburn was a “common vulgar look for a real gentle lady” (Weston, Thomas). Muffs and Tippets 1804:
Fur muffs were popular (left).
Tippets are a long, boa-like accessory that wrapped around one’s neck (right).
Tippets still seen today. Gloves! Longer gloves were worn at night
Shorter, more casual gloves were worn by day
Kashmir Shawls Warmest shawls made from cashmere wool.
Draped shawl emphasizes the classical effects women still strived for.
Still seen today.
Underwear ... Chemisette, a side opening half blouse, filled the bare neckline by day
- A nude color
- Reached to ankles or just below knee Dresses- Early 1800's http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_pAHzzoB72Ww/SUi0W1QzmKI/AAAAAAAAAxg/D07w41302CI/s400/1Hortense_de_beauharnais.jpg
Napoleon Bonaparte and his wife influenced fashion in 1804
To make women buy more material he forbid them to wear the same dress more than once to court
Empress Josephine was an ideal model for the slender fashions of the day

Napoleon’s sisters at his coronation Light colored muslin gowns
High waisted with little puffed sleeves The Empire dress of 1800's
Evolved in the late 1790s,
- began as a chemise shift ' gathered under the ' bust and at the neck
Empire line silhouette
Named after The First Empire
By 1800 the gown silhouette had a very low cut and square neckline
Fabrics- Fine white, lawn, muslin or batiste
Wearing a lot of white meant one was wealthy
- White gowns generally worn at night
Light pastel during the day
In winter:
- Heavier velvets
- Cottons
- Linens
- Fine wools
Empire dresses in Pride and Prejudice movies http://www.bbc.co.uk/drama/content/images/2007/03/22/bennets_396_1_396x222.jpg
http://janeaustensworld.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/bennetswomen.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_KO4lwcnBZ9A/ScssY_AWfMI/AAAAAAAAEVM/DoDWuada308/s400/keira_knightley+pride+and+prejudice.jpg
Military Influences on Fashion The Napoleonic Wars influenced military style details in clothes for men and women.
- Frogging, braids, cords, and velvet
Today’s military influence in fashion:
- Jackets and boots
The Pelisse - Coat Worn from 1800-1850
- Fur trimmed, straight in cut, belted high
- Most common coat
Waistline 1815- High waistline, French fashion trend
1816-1817, reached peak height
1818- Waistline drops and tightens
1825- “normal position”
Short Spencer Jacket 1812
Indoors and outdoors eveningwear
Made of silk or kerseymere (a type of wool)
Decorated sometimes with braids and cording (military influence). http://www.1812usriflemen.org/spencer.jpg
Late Romantic Fashion There was a ‘snobbish attraction on the continent for all things English, cultivated and refined’ (Weston Thomas).
New wave of Anglomania (Weston Thomas)
‘Writers Sir Walter Scott and Lord Byron helped popularize a thirst for a more romantic image’ (Weston Thomas).
In 1828 bodice waistline took on a V-pointed form.
- Cut from a circle
- Bound into band
- Sheer oversleeve or silk embroidered gauze covered beret puff
- Usually worn in evening
Gigot or Gigot De Mouton
- Built on an inverted triangle bodice
- Showed off chest, throat, and sloping shoulders
- After 1825 sleeves became very big
Sleeves Wider Skirt Hemline 1820-1835
Gored into panels
Stiffened with horsehair
Gradually padding was added
Dress was shortened to reveal some ankle
Skirts began to get rounder and more bell like
- Sets the stage for the Victorian Era…
Shoes Flat or low heeled pump
- Soft kid, cloth or silk
- Flimsy
- Wore out easily
- Ballet Slippers
- Usually worn in evenings or indoors
- In style for 40 years
- Trimmed with a bow or rosebud
- Still worn today!
- Colored leather
- ‘Bride boots’ and ‘dancing boots’ were even made
- Outdoors shoe

Men’s Fashion Dull Men’s fashion gradually dulls down
- Not much decoration
- No lace or bright color
- Dull, dark uniform dress
Men who count in the fashionable world tend to push for plainer styles.
Fitted trousers
- Move from a radical fashion statement to everyday wear by men
Men’s accessories Because men’s fashion has become so dull, the accessories are important
- Boots
- Hats
- Collars
- Neckties in this period were especially important
Overall Male Fashion Tight fitting trousers or pantaloons
Coats nipped at the waist
Top hats
Trousers, waistcoat, and coat were different colors Now...Culture and Society with Sylvia Culture Started appreciating exotic works
- Became fascinated with other realms of existence
New ideas, like supernatural and what was psychologically real,
- Concept of beautiful soul and ugly body
- Hunch back of Notre Dame and Frankenstein
Society Artists were politically and socially involved but distanced selves from public
The start of people wanting to know about their private lives
- Shock and horror of finding the secrets
- There’s still that relationship today with artist and audience
- Paparazzi ordeal
Two identifiable movements that followed Romanticism
- KNOW THESE: Symbolism and Realism
Nationalism Central theme of Romantic Art and political philosophy
National languages and folklore
- self determination of nationalities
Inspired by Rousseau (philosopher during the Enlightenment) and Johann Gottfried (German Philosopher of late 1700’s to early 1800’s)
- Argued geography formed the natural economy of a people and shaped . their customs and society

Dramatic change after French Revolution
- Self determination and consciousness of national unity were why France was . able to defeat other countries
- Napoleon inspired other nations Music in General Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven
- Classical composers
Growing use of folk music =nationalism = related to Romanticism
Music conveyed a sense of individuality and freedom
- Symphonies and Operas (rescue operas)
Piano and String quartets
Absurd concepts became reality in music
- “Hoffmann’s supremacy of instrumental music over vocal music in expressiveness.”
- Believed music as telling a story (programmatic)
Music: Instrumental Technology Iron frames for pianos, wound metal strings for string instruments
- Louder dynamics, more varied tone colors.
- Pieces became longer
Free standing overture or tone poem
- The piano fantasy, nocturne and rhapsody, and virtuoso concerto
The Opera Supernatural terror and melodramatic plot in a folkloric context
“Artists of the Future”
- Carl Maria Von Weber
- Der Freischütz (1817, 1821).
- Orchestration of Hector Berlioz
- Enriched timbre and color
- Giacomo Meyerbeer
Characterized by their free, charismatic, and “unconventional individual artistic personalities.”
1815-1848 (true age of Romantisicm in music)
Last compositions of Beethoven (1827), Schubert (’28) , Schumann (’56), Chopin (’49) Women's Role in Society Rise of lending library had different effects on males and females
Males were losing their acclaimed positions since people could just borrow their books
Women benefited greatly because it made it easier to distribute their own work.
- Increase in feminism
- Women wanted equality and did not want to be considered . “synonymous with unruly and erratic Nature”
- Saw this desire through their writing
Male writers used their works as a way to exploit women when they compared them to nature
- Emphasized their dominant role
Nature being destroyed or under the power of him
Their only roles were viewed as sentimental and nurturing
Eventually they had the upper hand because they knew how males thought because they freely expressed it, but man did not know what was on women’s minds because they were never given the chance to express it. Food for thought... Women wrote of morality and equality rather than self-creation Males used elevated language (above the general person’s knowledge)
- Fear of losing place in hierarchy in literature
Women brought language to the reader, forming a connection that increased readership and afforded women more social power.
Males viewed, and tend to still view females as irrational and overemotional beings And here's a modern connection... ...just kidding? Back to Becky for... Scientific Developments of the Romantic Era! Back to Becky for... Vaccination 1796 - first true vaccine for smallpox
1800 - 100,000 people vaccinated worldwide
Vaccination Today About 30 diseases are preventable with vaccines
- Varicella (chickenpox)
- Hepatitis A and B
- Rabies
- Influenza
- Measles
- Smallpox
Batteries 1798 - Alessandro Volta creates “Voltaic Pile”
Series of galvanic cells placed together
Batteries Today Society would be radically different without the use of batteries
- televisions
- computers
- video games
- cell phones
- iPods
Other Scientific Developments 1800 - Sir Humphry Davy discovers the effects of nitrous oxide
1803 - John Dalton postulates his atomic theory
1816 - Stethescope invented by Rene Theophile-Hyacinthe Laennec
1818 - First human blood transfusion done by James Blundell http://people.virginia.edu/~jlc5f/charlotte/georgecoro.jpg 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820 27 June 1793 – 27 July 1794
http://www.historyofwar.org/Pictures/napoleon.jpg 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 http://homepage.ntlworld.com/duncan.mcfarlane2/images/Misc/luddites.jpg Lasted from 1811-1817 http://goldenstate.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/luddite.jpg http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/peterloo.jpg http://www.soundoflife.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/william-wordsworth.jpg http://people.bu.edu/wwildman/WeirdWildWeb/media/galleries/theology/theologians/Coleridge_01.jpg http://todd44.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/william_blake_by_thomas_phillips.jpg http://dontwastewine.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/robert-burns.jpg http://britlitwiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/Jane_Austen.jpg/34015607/Jane_Austen.jpg http://filipspagnoli.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/lord-byron.jpg http://thebsreport.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/percy_bysshe_shelley.jpg http://myfinglife.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/mary-shelley1.jpg http://ilisaurus.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/john-keats.jpg http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/images/30976-Heinrich%20Heine%20@%20530.jpg The criminal justice system had harsh punishments for basic crimes http://www.fashion-era.com/images/HairHats/original_hathair_images/1hair1802-06.jpg http://www.fashion-era.com/images/HairHats/original_hathair_images/2hair1815-35.jpg http://www.fashion-era.com/images/HairHats/original_hathair_images/1hats1800-06.jpg http://www.fashion-era.com/images/HairHats/original_hathair_images/2hats1816-30.jpg http://www.fashion-era.com/1800_accesories.htm http://www.pinkfrosting.com.au/persistent/catalogue_images/products/parasol-lace02.jpg http://www.fashion-era.com/1800_accesories.htm http://www.behindthehype.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/paparazzi.jpg Went to College to become a Clergyman
- Changed religion to be Unitarian
Read "The Arabian Nights’ Entertainments" when 6
- Contributed to his attraction to the supernatural Taught himself Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Italian
Works were first examples of picture books
1788 1832 1800- Act of the Union passed 1807-Britian abolishes the slave trade 1805- British fleet defeats Napoleaons navy 1788-George III shows signs of crazy 1789-French Revolution begins 1793-Britain v. France 1812-Napoleon invades Russia 1815-Battle of Waterloo 1811-George III goes full out crazy 1819-Peterloo Massacre 1820-End of Regency (George III dies) 1832-First Reform bill stop in France 1829-Catholic Emancipation Act disallows many resrictions on Catholics 1831-"The Hunchback of Notre Dame" published by Victor Hugo 1815- popular dances included the Quadrille, the Gallop, English Country Dances, the Scotch Reel and Mazurka
Variation of dances throughout a ball; group dances and individual couple dances were peformed. VIDEO CLIP!

Waltz- “unusual novelty” performed by individual couples
- more talked about than performed at first
- Not ready to jump right into the closeness of the Waltz.
The Art of Dance http://www.lexingtonvintagedance.org/images/romantic_large.jpg
1840- Anna, the 7th Duchess of Bedford started the custom of serving tea with cakes, scones, and other light snacks
Began when she invited friends to join her for afternoon tea at Woburn Abbey. When returning to London, she continued the summer practice by sending out invitations asking friends to join her for “tea and a walking the fields”
Started the trend of tea parties
Fun Fact: “Taking tea” is considered a vulgar expression. “Drinking tea” is the acceptable phrase
http://www.ideachampions.com/weblogs/cup%20of%20tea.jpg Quick Custom: Tea Time
http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.fashion-era.com/regency_fashion.htm http://www.historicaldance.com/english/pictures/redoute_1_big.jpg http://www.fashion-era.com/1800_accesories.htm http://www.starstyleinc.com/gap-military-jacket-in-green-pic45657.jpg
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