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Ancient Rome

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Jordan Davis

on 6 June 2013

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Transcript of Ancient Rome

"Ab Arbe Condita"
Pliny the Younger
Wrote witness accounts of Vesuvius eruption
"De Agri Cultura" 2000-1000 B.C.E.: Fishing villages are built near the River Tiber, near what would become Rome
753 B.C.E.: Romulus, after slaying his own brother, Remus, for power, founds Rome
753-509 B.C.E.: Seven kings rule over Rome
509 B.C.E.: Tarquin the Great, Rome's last king is overthrown and Roman Republic is created
264-146 B.C.E.: Rome fights in the 3 Punic Wars against Carthage in North Africa; Rome is victorious.
135-132 B.C.E.: slaves revolt in the 1st Servile War
51 B.C.E.: Julius Caesar is enlisted as the governor of Gaul and conquers Gaul
45 B.C.E.: Caesar declares himself dictator of the Empire
44 B.C.E.: Caesar is assassinated by orders of
the Senate in fear of his power BACKGROUND
History: From the Beginning to Caesar MATH Cost of the Bath House ANCIENT ROME CULTURE AND CUSTOMS
Food Habits: Styles of Art: Frescoes The Rise and Fall of the
Roman Empire (p. 1) 31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.: Octavian, Caesar's nephew, becomes the 1st emperor as Augustus Caesar
64 C.E.: The Great Fire of Rome was set by Emperor Nero to make room for a palace and blames Christians
79 C.E.: Mount Vesuvius erupts, encasing the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum The Rise and Fall of
the Roman Empire (p. 2) 211-285 C.E.: Numerous emperors are killed in various revolts/assassinations
305 C.E.: Constantine becomes the 1st Christian Emperor
315 C.E.: Constantine legalizes Christianity
330 C.E.: The Empire's capital is shifted from Rome to Constantinople The Rise and Fall of
the Roman Empire (p.3) 337-351 C.E.: Constantine's three sons vie over control of the Empire until Constantius won
395 C.E.: The Roman Empire is divided into the Western and Eastern Empires
450 C.E.: Attila the Hun invades Gaul and escalates the barbarian invasion of the Roman Empire
476 C.E.: The Western Empire falls to barbarians where Romulus Augustus is usurped by a barbarian commander
527-565 C.E.: Justinian (the Eastern Roman Emperor) reconquered Italy for the Empire
1453 C.E.: The Byzantine Empire (Eastern Empire) falls to the Ottoman Turks as Constantinople is conquered Location of the Roman Empire The Empire's Greatest Extent:
117 C.E. The Two Empires Split of the Empire:
395 C.E. Famous People Hannibal
247-183 B.C.E. General from Carthage
Lead army of elephants through Alps to conquer Rome
Failed to defeat Rome in 2nd Punic War Hannibal Facts Julius Caesar
100-44 B.C.E. Julius Caesar Roman general that conquered Gaul
Renovated parts of Rome and created new buildings
Declared himself as "dictator" to end civil war in 45 B.C.E.
March 15, 44 B.C.E.: assassinated by members of the Roman Senate with 23 stabs Octavian (Augustus Caesar)
63 B.C.E.-14 C.E. Octavian Adopted son of Caesar
1st Roman Emperor in 27 B.C.E.
Renamed "Augustus" ("respected one") by Senate
Brought order and funded construction of new landmarks
"I found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble." Cleopatra
69-30 B.C.E. Cleopatra Was pharoah (queen) of Egypt, but was exiled in 48 B.C.E.
Returned to the throne with the help of Julius Caesar later that year
Fell in love with Caesar , and then with Marc Antony
Wanted to help Antony defeat Octavian
Was defeated at Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E.
Committed suicide upon defeat supposedly by snake bite Caligula
12-41 C.E. Caligula Real name: Gaius Julius Caesar
Born in rich family
Was a tyrant who had soldiers collect seashells and rewarded them nothing else
Pampered his horse, Incitatus
Due to his insanity, was killed by his guards in 41 C.E. Nero
37-68 C.E. Nero Mother was Agrippina (Caligula's sister), who poisoned husband so Nero would become Emperor
Nero attempted to kill her several times
Terrible singer, forced all to attend his concerts
Hated by the Romans, and committed suicide knowing his obvious loss Main meal eaten in late afternoon
"The rich fell ill to overeating while the poor from not eating enough."
Cooking pots made strong due to constant use and were cooked on grid over open flame Banquets Hosts often spent myriads of money on 3-course meals on pottery, glass, gold, or silver platters
Wishbones, fishbones, shells, lobsters' claws, and fruit pits discarded
All ate together, wore best clothing, removed shoes in host's house, 3 sat at each couch, and ate with fingers Roman Food Poor Wheat/barley porridge
Olives and grapes
Meat pies
Grains, oils delivered to poor Rich Fish sauce (squashed fish intestines, olive oil, and fermented herbs)
Sows' udders
Jellyfish stuffed with salted sea urchins
Flamingo with dates
Roast parrots
Boiled ostrich
Dormice stuffed with pine nuts and pork
Fruit for dessert
Lamb (popular for the wealthy) Where Does It Come From? Certain provinces specialized in certain products
Spain: olive oil
Egypt/North Africa: grain due to Nile soil
Italy: wines, vegetables, olives, and grapes
Britain: beer and woolen goods
Slaves, oxen, cattle, or donkeys plowed or were whipped
Farmers raised chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons, and bees for honey
Pigs, sheep, and goats also raised Clothing Men Soldiers Women Wore togas
Toga=one length of cloth, uncomfortable, hard to clean, but made fashionable by emperors
Emperors wore laurels and purple toga
Senators wore white toga with purple stripe
Citizens wore woolen tunic underneath white toga
Some wore only tunics
Tunic=folded, pinned cloth held by belt
Beards Helmets (Cassis)
Some had crest to identify officers
Gallic origins
Metal jackets (Lorica segmentata)
Heavy, flexible
Tied metal strips together with leather straps
Had badge of ranking
Leather straps tied to belt and weighed down by pendents to protect groin and intimidate
Sandals (Caligae)
Designed for battle and well ventilated
Short sword (Gladius)
Dagger (Pugio)
Shield (Scutum)
90 Pound pack including:
Mattock (for digging)
Turf cutter (for building ramparts) Togas seldom worn by women
Usually wore only tunics
Usually wanted to wear woven Indian cotton or Chinese silk
Had hair done into curls or bun by slaves
Beat slaves if not done well
Dark-haired women wore blond wigs or fixed hair
Used sweet-smelling oils, which were from Arabia and stored in bottles
Often wore jewelery Religious Beliefs/ Traditions Religion: Believed in Greek gods, but gave them new names like
Jupiter, instead of Zeus
Juno, instead of Hera
Bacchus, instead of Dionysus
Worshiped through food, wine, and animal sacrifices
Government officials performed religious duties in temples
Other religions permitted as long as Roman gods were recognized and did not threaten government Traditions Head of household responsible for home rituals
6 chosen girls became Vestal Virgins
Coming-of-age ceremony commences for boys at age 14
Removed neck charm and put on toga for men
Ended with offer of honey cakes to altar Marriage Bride wore tunic, veil, and wreath
Husband is head of household
Women consulted, though not citizens
Parents arranged and planned childrens' marriages
Girls married at 14 and wore ring on 3rd finger of left hand
Marriage not final until wife lived in husband's house for some time Language Official language: Latin
Greek used in Eastern Empire
Latin used 22 letters
Motto: S.P.Q.R. (Senatus Populusque Romanus) Contributions Latin alphabet
U.S. Motto: "E pluribus unum"
U.S. Constitution modeled after Roman democracy
Separation of power ART 1st Style-mimicry of precious stone surfaces in frescoes (Samnite House, Herculaneum; 200-60 B.C.E.)
2nd Style-used illusions in depth and space in frescoes (Room L of Villa of Fannius, Boscoreale, Naples; 100-50 B.C.E.)
3rd Style-decorative still lives and landscapes (Imperial Villa, Boscotrecase, Naples; 20 B.C.E.-50 C.E.)
4th Style-frescoes drawn on sections of walls and intricately framed (Nero's Domus Aurea in Rome; 20-79 C.E.) 1st Style Marble 2nd Style Wall Mural 4th Style Wall Remains 3rd Style Mural Styles of Art: Sculptures Wax mold method
Wax mold made first, then metal poured into mold
Melted out of wax
Fragile in comparison
Buildings/arches decorated with sculptures Types of Art Frescoes
Paint made of raw materials
Metals, marble, clay
Tiny stones, cement
Blown into glassware to shape
Metals, minerals
Rings, bracelets, tiaras, etc. Famous Artists Myron (sculptor)
M. Cossutius Cerdo (sculptor)
Leonardo Di Vinci (b. 1452, painter, inventor)
Michaelangelo (b. 1495, architect, sculptor, painter)
Sandro Botticelli (b. 1445, painter) Famous Pieces Facts Trajan's Column
113 C.E. Trajan's Column 38 m. tall
depicts +100 of Trajan's accomplishments
contains ashes of Trajan and spouse Catching a Bird
Pompeii Catching a Bird 1st Style Mosaic Victims of Vesuvius
79 C.E. Victims of Vesuvius Cast in volcanic ash
Eruption preserved everything Cave Canum
Mosaics found in various villas Cave Canum Specifically found in The Tragic Poet
Warned of guard dogs Bust of Julius Caesar
50 B.C.E. Bust of Julius Caesar Marble
One of many Capitoline Wolf
5th Century B.C.E. Capitoline Wolf Bronze
Depicts legend of Romulus and Remus Contributions
15th-17th century revival of art
Influenced writers
Realism influenced by Greeks, then Romans influence later art
Naturalism adopted by later artists
Influenced later art ARCHITECTURE Style Classical
700 B.C.E.-400 C.E.
Includes all Greek and Roman architecture Types of Structures Arches
Carries water Materials Concrete
Limestone, ash, water mixture
Mostly for foundations and statues
Rooftops Famous Buildings Pantheon (Rome)
162 C.E.
150 feet x 150 feet x 142 feet
Tribute for gods and Emperor Hadrian
Colosseum (Rome)
78 C.E.
615 feet x 510 feet x 160 feet
Fits over 50,000 spectators
Gladiator arena
Circus Maximus (Rome)
103 C.E.
2,000 feet x 500 feet
Fit over 250,000 spectators
Chariot racing arena (p. 1) Famous Buildings
(p. 2) Baths of Caracalla
217 C.E.
27 acres
1600 people
Arch of Titus
85 C.E.
50 feet tall
Villa Boscoreale
Partially destroyed by Vesuvius
Contained art Houses Domus-villa
Owned by wealthy
Mosaic-laden floors
Poverty stricken
No sanitation ENGLISH Authors Literary Works Books "History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"
Edward Gibbons
"Ab Arbe Condita" (Founded by Arbe)
"De Agri Cultura" (On Agriculture)
"A Visitor's Guide to Rome"
Christyan Fox Poems "Aeneid"
Horace Stories "Metamorphoses"
Eyewitness account of Vesuvius
Pliny the Younger Plays "The Tragedy of Julius Caesar"
William Shakespeare
"Androcles and the Lion"
George Bernard Shaw Movies Quo Vadis (1951)
Directed by Mervyn LeRoy
Ben-Hur (1959)
Directed by William Wyler
Spartacus (1960)
Directed by Stanley Kubrick
Cleopatra (1963)
Joseph L. Mankiewicz Contributions Neoclassical architecture
Rich get best homes BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bahn, Paul G., The Atlas of World Archeology, The Brown Reference Group, 2000
Fox, Christyan, A Visitor's Guide to Ancient Rome, Usborne Publishing Limited, 1999
James, Dr. Simon, Eyewitness: Ancient Rome, DK Publishing, 2008
Lessing, Erich, Pompeii, Finest SA Paris, 2001
Marcovitz, Hal, Ancient Rome, Reference Point Press, 2012
Osborne, Mary Pope & Boyce, Natalie Pope, Ancient Rome, Random House, 2006
Roberts, Paul, The Ancient Romans: Their Lives and Their World, British Museum Press, 2009
Roberts, Paul C., Ancient Rome, Time Life Books, 1997 Websites www.pages.drexel.edu/~jpm55/AE390/A5hypocaust.htm
http://www.csgnetwork.com/elecenergycalcs.html Encyclopedia Articles New Standard Encyclopedia, pg. C-481a, Colosseum, Ferguson Publishing Company, 2000
New Standard Encyclopedia, pg. M-542, Mosaic, Ferguson Publishing Company, 2000
New Standard Encyclopedia, pg. S-208, Sculpture, Ferguson Publishing Company, 2000 Why should this building be chosen by LEED? Uses few pipes, no pumps
Only gravity used to get water
Uses mostly sunlight throughout day
Only 4 fluorescent lights needed to illuminate
Made of relatively common materials
Used concrete could be utilized
Lets out no carbon emissions Roman Tools Currency As Dupondius 2 Ases Sestertius 4 ases Denarius 16 ases Aureus 100 ases Thank you for watching! Cost of walls+ $4,715.80 of Flooring SCIENCE Work under Construction Total Surface Area Estimate: 2093 1/3 ft.² (392.5 in.²)
[Main Building without Furnaces] Final Product Bath House
of Sulis Jordan Davis, Khayree Davis, Jordan Dean, and Anthony Donerson Approximate Circumference:
200.96 ft. (37.68 in.)
[Main Building without Furnaces] Cost (maintaining and construction): $233,881.58 Cost (construction and electricity): $234,250.23
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