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Chapter 14: Revolution and Nationalism
Transcript of Chapter 14: Revolution and Nationalism
Revolutions in Russia
Discontent in Russia
- Russia = "Fire cracker with a very long fuse"
Very powerful country
Falling behind technologically compared to the rest of the world
Russia Early 1800's
Absolutist monarchy - Neighbors becoming democracies
Citizens have little rights and no political participation
- Treated poorly
Began to industrialize in late 1800's
- Falling behind
Serfs (slaves) freed in 1861
Czar of Russia
Reform minded (wanted to change Russia)
1881 - Assassinated by revolutionaries
- Political change was taking to long
Come on Alex!!! Change things politically or get off the pot!!!
Halted all political reforms in Russia!!!
- Created an Autocracy- He has all the power
1881- succeeds father
You were dangerous if you
Questioned his authority
Were not Russian Orthodox
Spoke a language other than Russian
Secret police kept notes on everyone -Censorship
Teachers and professors required to submit reports on everyone
Political Prisoners were sent to Siberia
Remote area in Eastern Russia (death sentence)
Uniform Russian Culture Established
Oppressed other national groups
- Official language (no Polish in schools)
- Pogroms (organized violence against Jews)
Russian Soldiers and Police stand aside while Russian citizens destroy Jewish communities
Becomes Czar - 1894
Blind to see that times were changing and reform was needed
Russia industrialized rapidly - Changed economy
Number of factories doubled 1863 to 1900
Sergey Witte - One of the Czar's ministers
Moved Russia's industries forward by raising taxes and gaining foreign investments
- Steel industry 4th largest in the world
Worlds longest railroad (5,772 miles)
- Britain and France invested (Built 1891-1916)
Connected European Russia with Russian ports on the Pacific Ocean
The Revolutionary Movement Grows
Worker unrest grew due to working conditions, low wages, and child labor
Causes on the Russian Revolution
1. International Weakness
Total Humiliation in the Russo Japanese War
Navy destroyed or captured by Japan
Treaty of Portsmouth gives Japan captured territories & keeps Russia out of Manchuria/Korea
Lost Battle after battle
(4 million killed of captured during in just the first year)
Nicholas took military leadership with no experience
Not prepared for WWI
2. National Weakness
Freeing of Serfs - 1861
Could not afford rent (Unemployed)
- Worsened their conditions
Inflation and Food Shortages
Farmers Conscripted into the military
Food sent to the war front
3. Weakness in the Royal Family
Hemophilia "Royal Disease"
Hereditary genetic illness (Mother's side)
Due to intermarrying
Blood does not clot
Kept top secret did not want anyone to know that there was an issue with the heir to the thrown (Alexis)
Orthodox Monk and Mystic- from Siberia
Claimed to have magical healing powers
Seemed to help Alexis when he was having internal bleeding
Alexandra (Alexis's Mother) became dependent on Rasputin
She accepted his advice medically and politically
Believed that Rasputin's words came directly from God
People became suspicious of the royal families dependence on Rasputin
Made them seem weak
- Influenced Czar's decisions
Not sure in doing a good job or taking over...
Rasputin Assassinated- 1916
Rasputin was assassinated by a group of nobles
- did not die
Shot in the chest
- did not die
Shot in the legs twice while running away
- did not die
Shot in the head point blank, tied up and thrown in the ice cold Neva River
Rasputin predicted if Romanov Family killed him
None would live to longer than 2 years
Would be killed by the Russian People
Russia's Reactions to their Issues
1860 - Average of 6 strikes per year (in entire country)
1905 - Average of 176 Strikes per year
Bloody Sunday- The Revolution of 1905
200,000 protesters marched to the palace in St. Petersburg
Soldiers fired into the crowd
100's died, 1000's injured
Nicholas II forced to create Duma
- Legislative branch (Parliament)
- Afraid of losing power he dissolved them
in 10 weeks
The March Revolution - 1917
Women textile workers lead a strike in St. Petersburg
Swells to 200,000
Soldiers were given the order to fire upon them
- They disobeyed the order
March Revolution continued...
Nicholas and Alexis (son) agree to abdicate as long as his brother Michael would become Czar.
- Never happens
Provisional government created
- Had representatives from major political groups
- Hoped it would end the war but did not
- Russians become more radical!!!
Good guy soldiers
Russians become radical!!!
Provisional government was dominated by Mensheviks
Socialist Duma members begin to organize Soviets throughout Russia
Soviets- Local councils of common people
Leader of the Bolsheviks
Fled to Switzerland and lived in exile to avoid being arrested by the Czar
Rise of Communism
A group of workers began to follow the views of Karl Marx
Believed that the Proletariat (workers) would overthrow the Czar
The country would then be run by the workers.
Mensheviks- Moderate socialists
Bolsheviks- Radical Socialists (risk everything for change)
Lenin's Return to Russia
Germany hoped to cause chaos in Russia and end their involvement in WWI
Made a deal with Lenin
Snuck him into Russia by train in a sealed freight car- April 1917
The Bolshevik Revolution 1917-1918
- Lenin and Bolsheviks gain support in soviets
Forced government to release Bolshevik political prisoners
- Armed factory workers stormed government offices and arrested members of the provisional government
Placed Bolsheviks in charge
The Bolsheviks in Power
Within days Lenin distributed farmland to the peasants and gave control of the factories to the workers
Signs truce and treaty with Germany
- Gives large territory for peace
Opponents of the Bolsheviks
White Army vs Red Army (Bolsheviks)
White Army loses
Never unites, made up of multiple groups who all oppose Lenin but never organize enough to be successful
USA and other nations send aid to the White Army but does little help
Some people were upset with the Bolsheviks because of the humiliating peace treaty and the murder of the royal family
Russian Civil War 1918-1920
During the chaos of the Civil War
Romanov Family sent to Siberia
- To protect them from Red Army (850 miles outside Moscow).
Sent to Ipatiev House in 1918 (Bolshevik stronghold).
July 1918 – white army approaching Ekaterinburg where the royal family was held up
- Red concerned Whites would reinstate the Czar if victorious
July 16th – family woken up by Yurovksy
- chief executioner of the family
Told they had 30 min to dress.
Told they must be moved from upstairs to downstairs because not all was calm in the town
- taken into the cellar
The family was told that they would be photographed to prove to the people that they were still alive
Family lined up and shot.
Chaotic because girls had gems and stones sewn into dresses which ricocheted shots.
Bodies exhumed from mine shaft in 1991
- Two missing – those of Alexei and one of the girls.
- Some believed it was Maria, some believed Anastasia.
Woman claimed to be Anastasia for years, really Polish factory worker
Found bodies of Alexei and Maria in 2007 in burned field.
What do you know about Russia?
With a partner brainstorm a list of as many wars and conflicts that you can think of that occurred during the 20th century. For each, jot down what was the central underlying cause of that conflict.
Chapter 14 - Section 2
Totalitarianism: Stalinist Russia
f. Totalitarian states will use propaganda and censorship to control public opinion to support the government. Religious teachings will be replaced by the teaching of Communist ideas and the government will control the education system.
Joseph “man of steel” Stalin
Turns Russia into a totalitarian state (government that takes total, centralized control over every aspect of the public and private lives of its people.)
Stalin’s main focus was on Russian development.
a government that takes total centralized state control over every aspect of public and private life
- Provides sense of security and direction for the future
The Russian Civil War Continued...
Red Army (Bolsheviks) wins
14 million Russians died
- War, famine, disease
Bolsheviks maintain power
Lenin Restores Order
Russia was destroyed physically
and economically by war
Skilled labor dead or left Russia
Attempts to revive economy by restructuring the government
- Lenin big fan of Marx but his ideas were different
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Temporarily put communism on hold
State controlled major industries and banks
Restored small scale version of capitalism
Peasants could sell extra crops
Farms, small factories, businesses under private ownership
New Economic Policy Worked!!!
1928 - Russia made a full recovery in their farms and factories
Political Reforms 1922
Lenin organizes Russia into 4 self governed republics under the central government
Country now known as USSR
(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Bolsheviks = Communist party
(have all the power)
Way that government worked:
villages or communities had workers council to air grievances and give input.
- Almost no actual power
Lower ranking communist official oversees each local council. Are responsible for enacting any rules or overseeing plans. These officials report and meet in a larger Soviet.
Member of each Soviet serves on a larger national council within that republic where they report progress and bring back orders.
- USSR originally divided into 4 republics, but by end of USSR there were 15 republics
Each republic corresponded with a dominant ethnic group – each of these are independent nations today
Ex: Ukraine, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Georgia were all separate soviet republics•
Official policy towards other republics both during Romanov years as well as Soviet Union was russification
- Russification was the forcing of Russian culture on other republics and transplanting ethnic Russians in these areas as a way of creating unity and minimizing nationalism in each republic
Ex: built Russian schools where Russian language and history were taught
- Still see imprint of Russification in these nations today
Delegates from each republic serve on the Supreme Soviet. Duty to pass laws and create policy – though generally just accept whatever they are told to do.
Supreme Soviet then voted on a Central Committee whose sole duty was to select the Politburo
The Politburo was the highest ranking members of the communist party. For most of Soviet history, they were the ones making the decisions
Politburo picks one person to serve as the General Secretary of the Communist Party. Soviet version of the president. Runs the country.
Some general secretaries very dictatorial, some had very little real power
Lenin suffered 3 strokes - 1922-1923
March 1923- Mute and bedridden
Who will take his place?
Two notable supporters of Communism
Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky
"Man of Steel"
Joseph Stalin- "Man of Steel"
Bolshevik (Extreme communism)
Cold / hard / impersonal
- son of cobbler, expelled
from seminary school
Stalin - Lenin
“Comrade Stalin…has concentrated enormous power in his hands, and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution.”
Bolshevik (Moderate communist)
Favored democracy in USSR
- Humble beginnings, charming
Brilliant General in Red Army
Stalin used political alliances to become General Secretary in 1922
Lenin reported that the "unlimited authority" concentrated in him was unacceptable, and suggested that "comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post." Stated that Stalin’s "personal rudeness, unnecessary roughness, lack of finesse", flaws "intolerable in a Secretary-General".
1924- Lenin dies
Stalin in control on the Communist Party
Trotsky was forced into exile (Mexico)
- No longer threat
- Assassinated 1940
b. Stalin’s economic plan was setting up a command economy
(a system in which the government made all economic decisions. Political leaders will decide the economic needs of a country and determine how to fulfill them).
c. Stalin’s plan to develop Russia was called the 5 Year Plan (government promote rapid industrial growth and strengthen national defense). Production of consumer goods was limited causing shortages in housing, food, clothing, and other necessary goods.
d. Agricultural Revolution: Government will seize 25 million privately owned farms and combined them into large government owned farms called collective farms. Many peasants resisted but were forced onto collective farms to work. Between 5 to 10 million peasants died trying to resist Stalin’s agricultural plan. Kulaks (wealthy peasants) will made up most of the resistance. About 90% of all peasants lived on collective farms and agriculture will be on the upswing with wheat production doubling when compared to numbers before the collective farms.
e. Rulers of totalitarian states use terror and violence to force obedience and to crush opposition. Great Purge (was Stalin’s campaign of terror to remove/eliminate anyone who threatened his power in the Communist Party and in the Soviet Union). Stalin was responsible for 8 to 13 million deaths during this time.
Tools to control and persuade
1. Police Terror
Dictators use violence and terror to force obedience
Police enforce gov't policies
Instruction in the Government's beliefs
Mold peoples minds (Schools, Youth groups)
- Glorify leaders, convince citizens of gov't greatness
Biased or incomplete information used to sway people to accept certain beliefs or actions
Stalin controlled the information being released to the public
Control of mass media
Need government's permission to create publication, art, film, and music.
Citizens surrounded by false info
- Questioning info can result in severe
punishment including death
Stalin's Police State
Police monitored citizens
- Secret police arrested and
executed millions of "traitors"
1934 - Stalin turned on Communist Party
1937 - Stalin launched the Great Purge
Campaign of terror to eliminate those who threatened his power
"Communism is the best!!!"
Stalin Seizes Controls of the Economy
Command economy- Gov decides what to produce
Five-Year Plans – impossibly high quotas of steel, coal, oil, etc.
- Results: tremendous production increases;
shortages of consumer goods
We need to catch up with the rest of the world!!!
Stalin seized all privately owned land and joined them together into collective farms.
Huge farms where hundreds of families worked and produced food for the government.
Kulaks resisted (wealthy farmers)
Destroyed own crops and livestock in protest and killed some collection agents.
Stalin wipes them out
Between 5-10 million people die
Many executed or sent to gulags
1935 kulaks as a social class cease to exist
By 1930s USSR is a totalitarian regime ran through terror and total control of citizens.
Stalin will reign until March of 1953.
Favorite things to do included smoking, going in saunas, and watching American cowboy movies.
Had spent all night watching movies then had stroke in room while sleeping.
Servants and party members so scared of him that when he didn’t come out in the morning they let him sit there all day before finally someone went in to find him lying there.
Died 4 days later. Some believe that he was poisoned, but unknown
After death, USSR will start to inch back towards how it was designed – later general secretaries will have nowhere near the power that Stalin did
Everybody gets free stuff
Stalin: Man of Steel- Terror, Gulag, Propaganda
Skip 4:32-5:18 (executions)
Ch 14 Sec 3:
Imperial China Collapses
D. Chiang Kai-shek
(aka Jiang Jieshi)
6. Kuomintang leader whose actions caused civil war
Mao Zedong - Leader (assistant librarian)
- Differences from Lenin’s Russia?
- Start with peasants not cities
Relations with Kuomintang
- 1920s: coalition against warlords (Nat +Comm)
- Chiang Kai-shek - Army officer
President of Nationalist Rep. of China
1927 Turned on communists (ended relationship)
- Suspicious of communists and tries to kill them
Abandoned democracy (Corrupt)
After death, warlords gained power
WWI & Treaty of Versailles
Gave Chinese land to Japan (was Germany's)
- May Fourth Movement (Nationalist Protest)
Creation of Communist Party (people need another option)
Problems in the Republic
“The Chinese people…are four hundred million people gathered together in one China. In reality, they are just a head of loose sand.”
Kuomintang leader (Nationalists)
- Overthrew Qing Dynasty (in power 1644)
- 3 principles (for Modern Gov)
Nationalism (end of foreign involvement)
People’s rights (Democracy)
Livelihood (economic security for all)
- Lacked authority and military support
1912 - Gave presidency to Yuan Shikai
Sun Yat-sen (or Yixian)
Nationalists v. communists
What makes a country great???
Strong defense (Army/Navy)
Strong economy (Modern factories)
These are all things China wanted for their country in the early 1900's
Yuan Shikai (Strong general)
May Fourth Movement
May 4, 1919
3,000 students march on Beijing
Movement spreads across China
People want a strong modern nation
Foundation of nationalism
USA vs USSR
"They are an established country with Chiang Kai-Shek as their President!!!"
"No they are not!!!
They are Communists!!!"
The Long March
"Swimming in the peasant sea"
Communists hid in the hills of south-central China
Trained them in guerrilla warfare
- Nationalists attacked but failed to destroy them
Nationalists (700,000) surrounded Communists (100,000)
Communists fled 1934-35 (6,000 miles) -military retreat
7,000 survive - Hid in caves in northwestern China
Gain new peasant recruits
1937 invasion by Japan
- Bombed cities and villages, destroyed farms
Uneasy alliance between Nat. and Com.
- Fought common enemy
Civil War put on hold
"Communism starts with the peasants!!!"
"Communism starts with the cities!!!"
"Communism is stupid!!!"
- Chiang Kai-shek
aka Chiang Kai-shek
Are we there yet?
A. Sun Yat-sen
B. Mao Zedong
C. Yuan Shikai
1. Leader of Chinese communists
2. Led the Long March
3. First pres. of Republic of China
4. Military general who abandoned ideas of democracy once in power
5. Kuomintang leader who helped to overthrow Qing
Chapter 14 – Section 4 Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia
Demonstrations continued throughout India.
Salt March, protest against British salt laws.
In 1935, Britain passed the Government of India Act. (Not total independence)
- Provided local self-government and limited democratic elections.
Fueled conflict between Hindus and Muslims.
The final transfer of power in the 1940s would lead to continuing conflict in the region.
The Slow March To Independence
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., wrote his doctoral thesis on the life and teachings of Gandhi. The Salt March was one of King’s models for the sit-ins in Birmingham, Alabama. In 1963, King led a massive civil rights campaign there for African-American voter registration and desegregation in housing and education. Like Gandhi, King was often jailed, believing it was honorable to be imprisoned for a just cause.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Junior
The deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law.
He called upon Indians to refuse to do the following:
- Buy British Goods
- Attend government schools
- Pay British taxes
- Vote in elections
These actions took an economic toll on the British.
To protest 10,000 Hindus and Muslims traveled to Amritsar, the capital of the Punjab.
They intended to fast, pray and listen to political speeches.
- A British General ordered his troops to fire on the crowd without warning.
- 400 Indians were killed and another 1,200 injured.
The Amristar Masacre lead many Indians to change their political veiws from being loyal to the British to becoming Nationalists and demanding their independence.
Amritsar Massacre - 1919
Mohandas K. Gandhi
leader of the independence movement to free India of British rule.
“ Think of a time in your life when finding a peaceful way to get a need met has been more successful than making demands or beginning a conflict over the matter.”
The British attempted to take over Persia after WWI
- British and Russia both had spheres of influence
This triggered a nationalist revolt
A Persian army officer named Reza Shah Pahlavi took over Persia.
(Kept all power to himself)
- Modernized Persian schools and infrastructure, extended women's rights
- Changed Persia’s name to Iran in 1935.
Persia becomes Iran
Compare and contrast the four different governments adopted by the four nations in this section
How did WWI create an atmosphere for political change in both India and Southwest Asia?.
The rising demand for oil from SW Asia caused exploration in this area
Huge reserves were discovered.
The land around the Persian Gulf has nearly two thirds of the world’s known supply of oil
Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait become rich through selling oil.
Oil encouraged Western nations to try to dominate the region.
Oil Spurs Growth
- In 1902, began to unite Arabia
- In 1932, he named the country Saudi Arabia after his family
Saud carried on Arab and Islamic traditions (Religion and Family)
- Saud began to modernize Saudi Arabia, but only in
religiously acceptable areas of life. (No democracy)
Saudi Arabia Keeps Islamic Traditions
Ottoman Empire dissolved after WWI
Forced to give up all its territories except Turkey In 1919.
Greek soldiers invaded Turkey and threatened to conquer it.
Turkish Sultan powerless to stop them.
Mustafa Kemal or Ataturk - "Father of the Turks"
Led Turkish nationalists in fighting back the Greeks and their British backers
Overthrew the last Ottoman Sultan
Kemal became President of the new Republic of Turkey in 1923
Turkey becomes a Republic
Gandhi's Principles of Nonviolence
Mohandas K. Gandhi began to spread a new way of battling injustice.
His non-violent approach attracted millions of followers.
Called the Mahatma, or “Great Soul.”
- Religious approach
Gandhi urged Indians to follow a
policy of non-cooperation with the British.
How is this similar to what happened in China??
Indian Nationalism Grows
During WWI, millions of Indians enlisted in the British army.
- The British promised reforms that would lead to self-government.
In 1918, upon returning from the war, Indians continued to be treated as second-class citizens.
Rowlett Act: Allowed the British government to jail protestors for as long as 2 years without trial.
- Western-educated Indians saw this as a violation of their rights.
Did Gandhi want to be arrested? Why?
How was the Salt March an example of Civil Disobedience?
Why do you think the British finally grant Indian independence?
“Complete Civil Disobedience is rebellion without the element of violence in it. An out and out civil resister simply ignores the authority of the state. He becomes an outlaw claiming to disregard every unmoral state law… In doing all this he never uses force and never resists force when it is used against him. In fact, he invites imprisonment and other uses of force.”
- Mohandas Gandhi
What does a person who practices civil disobedience do?
How does a civil resister react to force?
Why do you think a civil resister invites imprisonment and the use of force.
“Victory attained by violence is tantamount (equal to) to a defeat, for it is momentary.”
Many upper class Indians who attended British schools began to apply the nationalism and democracy that they had learned
Salt March 1930
Nationalism will spread to Southwest Asia
Turkey began to modernize much like European countries.
He changed Turkish law: separating Muslim (religious) ideas from Law.
Abolished religious courts and created a new legal system (European)
Woman given right to vote and hold office
Created government funded programs to help industrialize Turkey to grow economically
- Kemal died November 10th, 1938 9:05 AM
Mustafa Kemal's Presidency
Ottoman Empire the
"Sick Man of Europe"
British send officials with supplies and money to the Middle East in 1916 to train locals to attack the Ottomans
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SYSTEM OF A DOWN