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Transcript of Essential Linguistics
By David E. Freeman and Yvonne S. Freeman
- the study of the sounds used by speakers of a particular language
- the smallest sound that makes a difference in meaning within a given language
- each phoneme is represented by only one written mark
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
- alphabet that has symbols to represent all the sounds that have been found in human languages
- the group of sounds that make up one phoneme. These variations do not make a difference in meaning, but pronunciation of phonemes can change depending on their position in words and other sounds around them.
- knowledge of phonology, orthography, and relationships between phonology and orthography.
- typical spelling patterns of English
- all aspects of writing (spelling, punctuation, spacing, and special features i.e. bold or italics)
- the meaning of a word, phrase or text
Implications from Phonology for Teaching a Second Language and Teaching Reading
Phonology and Teaching a Second Langugage
Southern Oregon University
Phonology and Teaching Reacding
explicitly teach correct pronunciation
focus on meaningful communication and pronunciation is addressed when errors prevent effective communication
The Natural Approach:
People acquiring a second language naturally go through a series of stages
It is important for teachers to understand aspects of the learner's first language, so that they can predict the way students may
pronounce English words
Phonology and teaching reading
Linguists describe the process of producing meaningful sounds in 4 steps
Break the speech stream into discrete units:
Categorize the units:
where and how phonemes are produced
Group the units:
There are many ways to do this (i.e. consonants and vowels, long, short, reduced vowels, voiceless stops and voiced stops, etc.) Groups allow linguists to make general observations and compare languages.
Find dependencies among the units:
Describe how one phoneme
or group of phonemes depends on or is affected by other
Phonology and Teaching a
Students are taught phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, names and sounds of letters, and phonics rules. Phonics is seen as the primary source of information used in decoding words. It is a prerequisite to reading.
As students interact with text, they acquire graphophonic knowledge. Students use graphophonic cues along with syntactic and semantic cues to construct meaning from the text. Graphophonics is learned subconsciously as a result of reading and being read to. Not a prerequisite to reading, but it is acquired by engaging with texts.
gradual release of responsibility model (read-alouds, shared reading, guided reading, and independent reading), choose texts that support reading, meaningful reading and authentic literacy activities
1. Are the materials authentic?
2. Are the materials predictable?
3. Is there a good text-picture match?
4. Are the materials interesting and/or imaginative?
5. Do the situations and characters in the book represent the experiences and backgrounds of the students in the class?
How to choose texts that support reading
Spelling is taught in a consistent, systematic way.
spellings lists, spelling tests, including weekly words in writing assignments, spelling bees, etc.
Spelling is part of the writing instruction. Students write for real purposes, so they are motivated to use conventional forms of spelling to communicate more clearly. Students naturally progress through stages of writing from invented spelling to more conventional spellings.
discussions about different spellings, linguistic investigations to discover spelling patterns,
activities that help students focus on words, word games to help students increase awareness of graphotactics
Teachers can involve their students in spelling investigations where students look for patterns instead of memorizing correct spelling:
1. Investigate the spelling of many words
2. Look for patterns
3. Categorize the words into similar groups
4. Look up history of words for less common spellings
5. Create a rule that accounts for all or most of the groups of words
Examples to investigate:
The spellings of /k/, Silent e, Consonant doubling
Reasons for unusual spellings:
1. Retaining spellings of English from earlier centuries
2. Retaining spellings of borrowed words from other
languages, such as French or Latin
3. Spelling words alike that are related in meaning