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Kingdom of Kush
Transcript of Kingdom of Kush
History of the Kingdom of Kush
The Kingdom of Kush
The Kingdom of Kush was located in the present-day country of Sudan.
Its early capital was Napata which is located right along the Nile River. It severed as an important trading center.
The capital was moved to Meroe in 591 BC due to the growth of the iron manufacturing industry.
The city of Meroe is located along the Red Sea.
Meroe was believed to have been a better capital than Napata because it opened up the Kingdom of Kush to international trade.
Capitals and Cities
Landforms and Physical Features
In the current country of Sudan, where the Kingdom of Kush was located, there are many vast plains and plateaus that are drained by the Nile River.
The northern plains of Sudan consists of a sand- and gravel-covered desert that is part of the Sahara.
The southern/central plains of Sudan are composed of clay.
The Nuba Mountains also run through southern/central Sudan.
The western plains of Sudan consist of the Nubian sandstones and the volcanic highlands including the Marrah Mountains.
The Kingdom of Kush was bordered in the northeast by the Red Sea.
The region of the Red Sea consisted of several rugged hills.
Spaulding, Jay L. "Production and Technology." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/571417/Sudan/24365/Production-and-technology>.
Omer, Ibrahim. "Religion." Ancient Sudan~ Nubia: : The Story of Creation, Jebel Barkal, and Maat. N.p., 2008. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ancientsudan.org/religion_01_basics_kushite_religion.html>
"Kingdom of Kush." - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Kingdom_of_Kush>.
Omer, Ibrahim. "Daily Life." Ancient Sudan~ Nubia: : Diet and Water. N.p., 2008. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://www.ancientsudan.org/dailylife_01_diet.htm>.
Work Cited Continued
The Kingdom of Kush's government was strongly influenced by Egyptian presence.
During the 8th century, it was ruled by a hereditary monarchy.
The kingdom established a rule from Abu Hammad to the Nile delta until the Assyrians invaded Egypt and drove the Kushites to Nubia.
It was in Nubia that they developed their own arts, language, and cursive script, all similar to the Egyptian's.
The Kushites had some equality, but not much.
Women had almost all the same rights as men.
Strong political power
High social statuses
In the Kingdom of Kush, they were very dependent upon slaves.
The slaves were treated very poorly, like property or products.
They were bought and sold like goods.
The Kushites were a polytheistic religion and mainly base their beliefs off of the Egyptians.
Nubian Creation Story: The world was covered in water and Atum rose land from the water. Atum gave birth to the first man (Shu) and first goddess (Tefnut), whom gave birth to the oher gods and goddess.
They believe that Atum created the heavens and that Atum was the universal god.
Jebel Barkal (mountain) was believe to be where life started and was the center of religious life.
Maat is a concept for "order and righteousness"
THe priest would decide whether the king was fit to rule
In the northern part of the Kingdom of Kush, it is very windy year-round, and rainfall is very rare.
During the winter the north would receive little to no rain, but during the summer it was their rainy season.
However in the south, they would receive most of their rain in the winter and less rain during the summer.
The Kingdom of Kush had a very hot climate.
It was usually the hottest before the rainy season.
The amount of rainfall varied greatly between the north and the south.
The north received almost no rain the whole year, but the south received up to 30 inches annually.
Dust storms were also very common in the north before a rainstorm.
They made bedsteads, did mat weaving, and pottery making.
They had crafts like iron workers, tanning and weaving cloth, and making baskets.
They had the same irrigation technique as the Egyptians (flooding of the Nile).
They directed the water with dams and cataracts.
They moved water to higher grounds b using water wheels "saqia".
The Kingdom of Kush had five main vegetation belts.
Their vegetation depended heavily on the amount of rainfall.
The desert region in the north consisted mainly of savannas or grasslands and mountain vegetation regions.
The desert regions only supported permanent vegetation along watercourses.
The deserts with minimal rainfall supported grasses and acacia scrub.
The south supported savannas that consisted of grasses, thorny trees, and baobab trees.
The Acacia trees were very dominant and provided one of their main exports.
The savannas in the south had more rainfall and were more lush.
They provided rich grasses along the Nile to feed the animals.
There were also some woodlands in the south.
They used Egyptian hieroglyphics.
Later, Meroe developed a new way of writing and began to write in the Meroitic script
Kush's politics was unorganized and very structured.
They had one king pharaoh.
They housed many varied slaves who worked mainly in construction and food production.
In recent archaeological finds prove that the rulers of Kush were the first in the region of sub-Saharan Africa to hold rule over so vast a territory.
One of their major crops was sorghum.
They ate dates and made date-wine.
They also at doam, a palm fruit.
The domesticated sheep and cattle for food and sacrifice.
Archaeologists have recently discovered ample artifacts giving us indication of what the Kushites traded.
Specialized in mining and processing gold and rare stones
They would trade items like grains and linen
Rise, Height, Decline
Dates of its Rule
The viceroys of Kush became independent kings by 11th century BC.
The viceroys of Kush were known as the 'Sons of Kush', and their job was to control gold mines. Some viceroys of Kush were Si-tayit, Turo, Seni, Nehi, Merymose, Huy, Tuthmose, and many more.
Huy is said to have escorted the queen to Egypt with the job of Messenger to Hati.
Merymose oversaw different lands and scribes. Tuthmose put down rebellions and oversaw mansons.
These are just a few of the more than 30 Viceroys known to have helped lead the Kush kingdom.
Another important leader was Piye, a Kushite ruler, who led the Kush army into egypt. He took control of the city of Memphis, and took control of the Egyptian Empire.
There were many goods produced in the Kush empire.
This lead to an advance level in trade in Africa at the time.
Trade there was an improvement in the Kushites lifestyle
The found a successful economy because of exported goods
Their military improved because of the iron weapons they made
Their lifestyle improved due to their inheriting Egyptian culture.
Over all the Kush empire had a good economy during the time period they existed
The early Kushites were herders and traders who settled the region.
They became wealthy off of the large amount of gold in the area.
The Kush reasched its height when it was the vital trade center for Egypt and central Africa. They had a large supply of goods and natural resources.
After being threatened by other Kingdoms, the Kingdom of Kush moved to Meroe.
Years later, they were overpowered by an Ethiopian Kingdom and the Kingdom fell.
2000 BCE- Region settled by Kush.
1400 BCE- Kush was conquered by Egypt
1100 BCE-Kush regained independence
700 BCE- Kush attacked Egypt
730 BCE- King Pie was named pharoh
671 BCE- Kush were forced out of Egypt by the Assyrians
590 BCE- Kush made new capital city after their old one was overpowered
350 BCE- Kush was destroyed