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Bread & Circus


Matthieu Darricau

on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of Bread & Circus

Sports are SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONS. This means that we play a role in making them what they are today and what they will be in the future.

We can play this role ACTIVELY, or LET OTHERS create the sports as they would like them to be.

1. Power and Performance Sports
2. Pleasure and Participation Sports
What about the
- Big influences by people in wealthy postindustrial society.

- Sportsman as warriors or heroes -> identification -> consumerism

- Media related as well athletes' sport life as their private life -> human dimension -> interest.

- They add commercial dimension around sport which attract spectators (game in second plan).
Factors of Power and Performance Sports
Building the future...
"Regardless of one´s advantage point, effectively
creating the future depends on having a clear vision
what sports could and should be in the future
, a
willingness to work hard
to turn visions into realities,
and the
political abilities
to initiate and mantain strategies that produce results". JAY COAKLEY
- Identify the rules infractions.
- Measure the the performances more precisely.
- Increase the athlete's abilities (during the training and the competition).
- Allow the athletes to get more control of their body ( detect and correct injuries, make the sport safer).

- When ethically, the medicines products effect and access make fairness issues (doping).
- When ethically, the sport suites and materials make fairness issues (swimming suites).

- Effect of improving will decrease fewer and fewer.
- Always the respect of the ethical values and the fairness .
Television and media
- Better access to the sport event all around the world.
- Sport's information all around the world.

- Which sport could and should be in the future.
- Cover page selected according to profits.

- The media will continue this process to show the powerful discipline to try to earn more and more profits.
- They will continue to mix private life and sport life of the athletes.
Video games
- "passive" video games
- "active" video games
- more and more virtual games.
- Big virtual sport's competitions.
Commercialism and consumption
- People embedded in commercial culture.
- Play and sport arrive in secondary importance.
- Alternative sport to leave of commercial system.
- Growth of commercialism system.
- Growth of number of alternative sport.
- Alternative sport will enter to commercial system.
Conservative goal
- Sport is a good activity with good ethical values.
- The system is satisfied.
- The growth of sport enhance improving of society.
- It create opportunities.
Reformist goal
- Sport participation produce positives consequences.
- But ethical foundation have to be restored.
- Promote fair competition, opportunities to participate.
- denounce cheating, drugs, discrimination.
Radical goal
- The form of sport must to be reorganized.
- To create new meaning and objectives.
- split in a fair way the profits and resources

- Concerned not a lot of people.
- They are unwelcome to the commercial system.
- They are focus on other issue than sport.
- Values of sport.
- Ideology, and representation.
- used majority by y the reformists.
- Changing of socialization process
- Relationship.
- Social learning.

- Used by reformists and radicals
- Relationship between social organization and access to power, material and opportunities.
- Enhance changing of organization of relationship.
- Want bring sport more democratic, accessible.
- Used by reformists and especially radicals.
"Bread & Circus"
Future visions for
tomorrow’s sport

- Roman poet Juvenal I A.D.
- "Opium of Masses"
- "Sports" as a Political Tool.
- Julius Caesar, Aureliano, ...
Panem et Circenses
Football worldcup 1978
-Videla's coup d'etat in 1976
-Argentina won the world cup
-People forget the politcal issues during the competition.
Rugby World cup South Africa 1995
- Post Appartheid
- Nelson Mandela
- Unity between White and Black people
Beijing 2008 OG
- Human rights
- Protest movement
i.Highly visible and publicized --> Sponsors
ii.Emphasis on strength, power, speed and competition.
iii.Dedication, sacrifice, hard work and willingness to take risks… Stress.
iv.Constantly pushing human limits, use of the body as a machine.
v.Employ of science and technology.
vi.Athletes with special physical skills and abilities
vii.Subordination to coach, owner, administrators and sponsors.

Power and Performance Sports
i. Highly visible and publicized; Sponsors
ii. Emphasis on strength, power, speed and competition.
iii. Dedication, sacrifice, hard work and willingness to take risks… Stress.
iv. Constantly pushing human limits, records, the use of the body as a machine.
v. Employ of science and technology.
vi. Athletes with special physical skills and abilities.
vii. Subordination to coach, owners, administrators and sponsors.
Pleasure and Participation Sports
i.Emphasize freedom, authenticity, self-expression, enjoyment, health, support for others and respect to the environment.
ii.Focus on personal empowerment and experience challenges rather than training and subordination to others.
iii.Skill differences between participants --> For EVERYONE.
iv.Public and non-profit sponsors/organizations.
v.Health promotion.
vii.Connection with others and the environment.
Are WE agents of CHANGE??
1.Concerns about health and fitness
1. Programs emphasizing
prevention and health care
(rather than expensive cures)

2. Activities with health benefits
-> Fitness

3. Growing
cardiovascular diseases
s obesity or diabetes.

challenges; no stress, anxiety,...
2. Participation preferences among older people.
To keep in mind...
- Increasing proportion of the world´s population
- "Baby boomers" --> now in their 40´s - 60´s.
They seek for...
a. Low injury rate.
b. Pleasure of movement.
c. Connections between people.
d. Controlled challenges
3. Groups seeking Alternative Sports.
supporting "Pleasure and Participation Sports
“The challenge for these sports today is to resist pressure to align with corporate sponsors and incorporate into their activities more power and performance elements that will attract mass audiences” (Wheaton, 2004).
- Sense of fun and friendship
- The appreciation of nature
- The travel and the unique experiences
- The freedom and creativity
Characterized by...
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