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Psychology AS Revision lesson 1

PSYA2 studies
by

Amanda Lane

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Psychology AS Revision lesson 1

PSYA2 REVISION
Studies
Stress....
The ways in which the body reacts physiologically to psychological and physical stressors.
The body is prepared through two stress response pathways to USE ENERGY. This is known as 'FIGHT or FLIGHT' - either of these 2 pre-programmed responses require energy to be released in the blood stream to supply the muscles. Hormones are also released which activate the heart and lungs to provide as much oxygen as possible to the muscles
Stress response: the basics!
Selye 1956
G
A
S

eneral
daptation
yndrome
A
R
E
larm
esistance
xhaustion
stress response system activated
Body copes with stress
stress related illness may develop
(Short-term effects of stress)
Acute
Chronic
(hormones become depleted)
The effects of stress on the immune system..
Short term stress
Kiecolt-Glaser (1984) - blood samples before and during exams of 75 medical students
Long term stress
Cohen (2005) - illness as a result of conflict in relationships.
Kiecolt - Glaser (2005) - rate of wound healing and conflict in relationships (gender differences women affected more than men)
Life changes and daily hassles
Life Changes
The social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)
Holmes & Rahe (1967)
Sources of stress...
Life changes as a source of stress when compared with illness scores of 2500 sailors showed a positive correlation
Other research into life changes as a source of stress
Stone et al (1987) - married couples study. Results show that undesirable events increased 3 to 4 days before the onset of illness.
Daily Hassles
Lazarus devised a daily hassles and uplifts scale.
Kanner et al (1981) found that daily hassle scores correlate with levels of anxiety, depression and health problems

Ruffin (1993) identified that daily hassles can have more of an impact than negative life events
Work place stress as a source of stress
Dewe (1992) - workload

Marmot et al (1991) - lack of control
Personality types
Friedman and Rosenman (1974) - links between type A and CHD
Williams et al (2003) - 15 year olds with type A behaviour were less healthy
Kirkaldy et al (2002) - German managers with type A behaviour with external locus of control compared with managers with type B behaviour and internal locus of control. Type A's had greater perceived levels of stress.
Hardiness
Kobasa (1977)
Describes how some people are more resilient to stress than others
Control
Commitment
Challenge
Folkman & Lazarus (1980)
Coping responses -
"Thoughts and behaviours that a person uses to reduce stress and to regulate the emotional impact"
Problem-focused
Emotion-focused
Research:
Penley et al (2002) - Study with nurses. Problem-focused coping correlated positively with overall good health
Nolen-Hoeksema (1994) - emotion-focused coping strategies that women employ (thinking, worrying) are more harmful (maintains depression) than the ones that men employ (exercising, drinking)
Park et al (2004) - problem-focused coping is correlated with positive moods.
Social Influence
" The process whereby a person's beliefs, attitudes and behaviours are changed by the presence or actions of others"
Conformity
" the process of yielding to the MAJORITY influence"
Kelman (1958) - 3 types of conformity (responses to social influence)
Compliance - public conformity, private views
Identification - Public and private conformity (temporary)
Internalisation - Complete conformity
Normative Social Influence
We change our views and behaviour because we want to be liked and approved of by others (COMPLIANCE). Asch's study is an example of NSI as they publicly went along with the group even though privately they knew the answers were wrong.
Informational Social Influence
In an ambiguous situation, we look to others for help and guidance on how to behave. This can lead to INTERNALISATION, as long lasting change in believes and attitudes. Sherif (1935) and the flashlight experiment is an example of ISI.
Asch (1951)
Factors increasing conformity
Unanimous majority
Difficulty
Desertion of partner
Factors decreasing conformity
Non-unanimous majority
Majority of 2 people
Writing rather than verbal
Conformity
Crutchfield (1955)
Conformity when participants cannot see each other.
Individual differences
Perrin & Spencer (1980)
Asch's study with British students - Era dependency (people are more likely to conform in the 50's)
Conformity to social roles
Obedience
"A person acts in response to a direct order from someone in a position of authority. It is assumed that a person would NOT have acted in such a way if they had not been ordered to."
My Lai Massacre (1969)
Milgram (1963)
Hofling et al (1966) - Obedient nurses
Bickman (1974) - Power of the uniform
Individual difference on
individual behaviour
Rotter (1966) - Locus of control
Blass (1991) - gender differences
Smith & Bond (1998) - culture differences
Minority Social influence
"The views of the minority can influence social change"
Moscovici (1985) - coloured slides
Hogg & Vaughan (1998) - acting on principle by those who are most like us
Van Avermaet (1996) - snowball effect
Mugny & Perez (1991) - social cryptoamnesia
Psychopathology
(Abnormality)
3 definitions of abnormality
Deviation from social norms
Failure to function adequately
Deviation form ideal mental health
Deviation from ideal mental health
Jahoda!
Positive attitudes towards the self
Self actualisation of your own potential
Resistance to stress
Personal autonomy
Accurate perception of reality
Adapting and mastering the environment
Psychodynamic approach to abnormality
"Views abnormal behaviour as being caused by unconscious, underlying psychological issues"
'Little Hans' - The boy with a fear of horses
The behavioural approach to abnormality
" Abnormal behaviour is LEARNT through experiences"
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Social learning
Classical conditioning
Behaviour is learned through association (conditioned stimulus + conditioned response) Pavlov's dogs and 'Little Albert (Watson and Rayner 1920).
Operant conditioning
Behaviour is learned through positive and negative reinforcement (Skinner's rats)
Social learning
Behaviour is learned through observing others (Bandura 1973)
The Cognitive approach to abnormality
"Looks at the idea that there are faulty processes that occur between thinking and acting"
Ellis (1962) Irrational thinking - if we think rationally we behave rationally
Beck (1967) negative thoughts underpin mental disorders

Irrational ways of thinking (Ellis 1962, Beck 1967)
Polarised thinking - Seeing things as either black or white
Overgeneralisation - generalising a single event
Tyranny - I must be liked by everyone
Catastrophising - Making a mountain out of a molehill
Negative views about the world
Negative views about yourself
Negative views about the future
The cognitive triad
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