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Transcript of WWI
You couldn't walk side by side.
You had to walk single file and some times even side-ways. Small Trenches Machine guns and other new weapons made traditional methods of attack obsolete. Troops attacking with bayonets would have been mowed down by machine gun fire –which quickly brought about trench warfare.
Most trenches were about 10 feet deep, fortified with sandbags, wood and barbed wire barriers with tin cans, and razor blades were often attached to the wire. Trench Warfare Trench warfare was used on the Western Front, the line between France and Germany that rarely moved. These trenches were protected by barbed wire and concrete machine-gun nests. A type of fighting where both sides stayed in deep trenches to avoid the gunfire “up top.” Trench Warfare The Western Front Stalemate – A situation where no side is able to gain an advantage
Battalion – A unit of about 850 men Vocabulary If I should die, think only this of me:
That there’s some corner of a foreign field
That is forever England. There shall be
In that rich earth a richer dust concealed;
A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware,
Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam,
A body of England’s, breathing English air,
Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home.
And think, this heart, all evil shed away,
A pulse in the eternal mind, no less,
Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given;
Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day;
And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness,
In hearts at peace, under an English heaven. The Soldier
By Rupert Brooke
was a well-known
poet in WW I
“Dulce et Decorum” Poetry of World War I Von Schlieffen created a plan for a quick defeat of France. The German general Von Moltke was the German General at the battle. He weakened his army by sending part of it to the Russian front. The British, who had a treaty with Belgium, entered the war and joined the French forces. It lasted only eight days and created a stalemate on the Western Front. The Germans were driven back to the Aisne River, where they dug trenches, and the Allies dug trenches opposite the German trenches—next 4 years brought little movement for either side. The First Battle of the Marne
Timeline—September 5 – 12, 1914 ** Students divide on two sides of field.
**One side is the Allied Powers—Students choose a country from the Allied Powers: France, Russia, Great Britain, U.S.A.
**The other side are the Central Powers –Students choose a country from the Central Powers: Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Germany, Austria-Hungary
**2-3 or more students are in the center as bombs and try to tag the students when they run across.
**If they tag a student, the student lays dead on the ground and can’t get up until the next game.
The teacher calls out battles between countries and the students try to run across to the other side without being bombed.
**The 2 or 3 students standing are the winners and the powers they represent win. The next game they become the bombs. P.E. Activity Alliance –an agreement
Entente – An agreement between nations, less formal than an alliance Vocabulary Color Central Powers Red
Color Allied Powers Green
Label Western Front, Southern Front, and Eastern Fronts on map Label Map France, Russia, Great Britain and other nations joined later Allied Powers Bulgaria
Germany Central Powers Choose students to represent each country
As the Teacher reads about what happened during the alliances, have the students connect on to the rope at the appropriate time and place.
Have a tug of war each time the teacher stops between the two sides Military Alliances Activity Military Alliances Austria-Hungary became allies with Germany in 1882
Italy dropped out of the Triple Alliance before World War1 started
Bulgaria joined forces with Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
The Allied Powers opposed the Central powers
Great Britain was a member of the Triple Entente
Alliances were looked upon as a way to maintain a balance of Power Military Alliances Secret Alliances Causes of World War I July 28, 1914 –Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
--Several other declarations of war followed during the next week
August 4, 1914 –Germany invaded Belgium and started the fighting
August 10, 1914 –Austria-Hungary invaded Russia, opening the fighting on the Eastern Front Timeline Timeline: June 28, 1914
Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand Nationalism --The pride people feel for their country Nationalism First president to hold a
In, 1917, he was forced
to declare war against Germany
Presented the 14 points
Negotiated Treaty of Versailles
Established the League of Nations
Awarded a Nobel peace prize
for ending World War I President Woodrow Wilson
(28th president, 1913 – 1921) Was the largest president
weighing 332 pounds
Was the first president to serve
on the Supreme Court
President Roosevelt handpicked
him, but later thought he was
The strife between the two
split the Republican party President William Taft
(27th president, 1909 – 1913) Label all the countries on the map at the time of World War I Label Map Kaiser – The German emperor’s title
Took over after Otto Von Bismarck
Had ambitions to rival the empires of Britain and France. To do this, he expanded his army and ordered the construction of a new fleet of warships. By 1914, Germany had colonies in Africa, the Far East and the Pacific, and the second largest fleet in the world –after the British Royal Navy. Kaiser Wilhelm II Considered the founder of the German Empire
For nearly 3 decades he shaped the fortunes of Germany.
From 1862 – 1873 as prime minister of Prussia and from 1871-1890 as Germany’s first Chancellor.
Was known for bringing about a lot new changes for Germany, and a master of alliances. He was succeeded by William II. Otto Von Bismarck Carried on the explorations of David Livingston. He galvanized the European nations into action.
He was sent to Congo region, where he made treaties with several African chiefs and by 1882 had obtained over 900,000 square miles of territory. Henry Morton Stanley Was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from
1837- 1901 ( was one of the most famous rulers in British History-63 years)
Victoria’s reign is often called the Victorian Age
Wars fought during her reign– Opium War 1839- 1842 in China acquired
Hong Kong. Crimean War (1853-1856) against Russia and Boer War
(1899-1902) in order to protect its interests in southern Africa
1858 – took control of India seized control of Egypt and many other areas.
The British Empire included a fourth of the world’s land and a fourth of its people.
The population of Britain itself increased 50 percent during her reign Queen Victoria (1884 – 1885)
Mediated the imperial competition among the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the French Third Republic and the German Empire, defining “effective occupation” as the criterion for international recognition of colonial claims, usually accomplished through armed force. Berlin Conference European imperialism and Rivalries in Africa Time between the 1800’s to WWI
Was when a number of European countries rushed, or “scrambled” to gain extra colonies in Africa
Only ten percent of the continent was under the control of Western nations.
This led to several arguments between European nations. For example: the Germans and French argued about Morocco in 1906-1911. Scramble for Africa 1914 - 1918 World War I Muddy Trenches Conditions were horrible with disease, flies, lice,
frogs, and rats even the size of cats.
There were generally four main lines of trenches with soldiers being rotated on duty between the four main trenches.
The area between the trenches was called ‘no man’s land’.
In the first five months of the war, both sides lost nearly a million men with very little movement. Trench Warfare The Archduke and his wife leaving city hall
Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand
July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Russia had a treaty with Serbia and was obligated to protect it when Austria-Hungary declared war
France was dragged into war because they had a treaty with Russia
Great Britain entered when Germany invaded Belgium
Serbia later became part of Yugoslavia The assassination triggered a web of alliances that led to all of Europe being dragged into the conflict World War I began in 1914 after Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia The Spark Peoples such as the Czechs, the Serbs, the Bosnians and the Poles all wanted the right of self-determination, which meant they want to be an independent nation. The Austro-Hungarian Empire made up much of southeast Europe and was made up of many different nationalities. Nationalism Causes of World War I Militarism – nations competed to build the strongest armies and navies. This led to the armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary, France and Russia to double in size. Europe’s major countries were obsessed with building up their armies and navies to have a better one than their rivals. Causes of World War I President William H. Taft’s policy of influencing foreign nations through American economic force rather than military force U.S. operations in Latin America went from "warlike and political" to "peaceful and economic" Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy The British King, George V
Tsar Nicholas II of Russia
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
Were all grandsons of Queen Victoria, and early August saw a flurry of telegrams sent from one cousin to another. They were convinced that their close relationship would make a war between their countries impossible. A Family Affair Garibaldi welcomed in London Wanted Italy to be free from the Austrian yoke
1824-33 Lives as a sailor in the Mediterranean Sea
Fought with Italy for the republican cause
1849-Offers his services to the Pope Pius IX
(longest reigning pope – 1846-1878In history—many killed)
1867- attempts to march on Rome, but beaten
1866- helped Italy gain the city of Venice from Austria
During 1860-1870- elected to Italian Parliament, but refused
By papal and French forces-arrested by Italian government
1870- Joins republican France in the Franco-Prussian War
(After 1260 years, Rome ceases to be governed by the Popes) Garibaldi – 1807 – 1882
Nice, France Was among the greatest of the European explorers who charted the vast interior of Southern Africa and Central Africa.
He mapped and charted the continent and by the end of the century had charted the Nile from its source, the courses of the Niger, Congo and Zambezi Rivers.
The world had never realized the vast resources of Africa. David Livingston Infantry with gas masks April 22, 1915— French troops near Belgium saw greenish-yellow cloud drifting toward them from the German lines. This was a chlorine gas.
Other gases included mustard gas which was suffocating, and tear gas which was blinding, and phosgene gas.
Approximately 79,000 soldiers died as a result to being exposed to poison gas Poison Gas Imperialism –the policy in which strong industrialized nations take control of weaker, unindustrialized areas. The rise of imperialism led to economic rivalries among the major European powers. Each wanted to have more colonies than their rivals. Causes of World War I The most important battle on the eastern front
Took place in East Prussia (now Northern Poland)
When guns ceased after 6 days, Russian army had
suffered a defeat from which they would never recover
The Russians lost 125,000 troops to Germany’s 13,000. Battle of Tannenberg
Timeline -August 26 – 31, 1914