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Cloning

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Twinkle Disuacido

on 7 October 2013

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Transcript of Cloning

Cloning

What is Cloning?
It is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another, such as a cell or an organism.
Cloning Methods
Two types:
FACTS
In most cloning experiments, less than 5 percent of cloning efforts result in live clones.

Stem cells from the bone marrow retain their versatility longer than those from other parts of the body.
ADVANTAGES
HISTORY
HOW DO SCIENTISTS CLONE CELLS?
There are three types of Cloning.
DISADVANTAGES
Reflection
The copies produced through cloning have identical genetic makeup and are known as clones.
The term clone is derived from the ancient Greek word klon meaning “twig”. It may refer to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig.
Scientists aim to find practical applications for cloning that will produce advances in medicine, biological research, and industry.
Natural Cloning
Cloning has been going on in the natural world for thousands of years. However, the ability to intentionally create a clone in the animal kingdom by working on the cellular level is a very recent development.
History by year
Cloning Mammals
Scientists soon turned their attention to cloning mammals, which proved even more complex than earlier cloning experiments on invertebrates and amphibians. Cloning techniques evolved from artificial embryo twinning to embryonic nuclear transplants and then to somatic cell nuclear transfers.
Reproductive Cloning
Is done to reproduce an animal or human with the same DNA as another existing or previously existing organism. Dolly the sheep was made by this type of cloning.

Therapeutic Cloning
Is like reproductive cloning except the embryos are not allowed to develop fully. This allows scientist to extract the stem cell out of them. These stem cells are used for understanding diseases and developing new treatments for diseases. Stem cells could be very useful in the future as replacement cells to treat cancer, Alzheimer's, and heart diseases.
Artificial Embryo Twinning
Is the relatively low-tech version of cloning. It mimics the natural process of creating identical twins, but it occurs in a Petri dish instead of in the mother's body. This is accomplished by manually separating a very early embryo into individual cells, and then allowing each cell to divide and develop on its own. The resulting embryos are placed into a surrogate mother, where they are carried to term and delivered. Again, since all the embryos came from the same zygote, they are genetically identical.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
It is the transfer of the nucleus from the somatic cell to the cell of an egg. Somatic cells are taken from any part of the body and they are other than the sex cells or germ cells. For example blood cell, heart cell, lung cell or skin cell. In this technique the somatic cell nucleus is removed from its original cell and inserted it into the cell of an unfertilized egg, the nucleus of which is already removed. This egg along with its foreign nucleus is nurtured in the laboratory and when it transforms into an embryo, it is transferred into the substitute mother where it develops and reproduces into an individual.
The Element of Uncertainty

-Low survival rate of less than 5%: Dolly’s birth after 277 tries and failures in In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Inheritance of genetic abnormalities and diseases
It is already in our nature as humans to fight our way into this world. Survival tops our list of those we fight for. And, survival comes with discovery. The scenes that we experience everyday push us to venture into the unknown, fully confident and fully anxious at the same time. That’s probably why we are so into the idea of something as complex, as uncertain and as controversial as cloning.
If cloning has uncountable adversaries, it incontrovertibly has its own share of benefits, too. It has shown great potential in benefitting man in the future if man chooses to peruse its development. These are advances that are definitely breakthroughs in the history of our existence.
But, the goodness that these breakthroughs possess is susceptible to tarnishes brought about by humanity’s ego. By learning to traverse into the road of wisdom and discovery while getting a hold of one’s dignity as a human fully conscious of what is right and wrong at the same time can not only result to advantages for us, but it can also bring glory to the One who gave us the beginning, the ideas, the results and the vague future that we will somehow surpass in the same manner that we surmounted those that dared to bring humanity to its downfall.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
In botany, the traditional equivalent term of cloning is lusus.
Creosote Bush
(Larrea tridentata)
Plants
Parthogenesis
Animals
1885
-Laboratory cloning techniques using undifferentiated embryo cells are first developed
-Hans Dreisch
>1935 Nobel Prize in Medicine
>Main goal: Not to create identical animals but to prove that genetic material is not lost during cell division.
>He separated a sea urchin embryo when it was just two cells, and both cells grew to adults.
1900s
Hans Spemann
-He extended Dreisch’s work to salamanders
-Major equipment used: a strand of hair from his infant son
>separated a 2-celled embryo
>separated a single cell from a 16-celled embryo
Both large and small embryos developed into identical adult salamanders.
1938
Hans Spemann publishes his results and proposes a “fantastical experiment” to produce an animal by removing the nucleus from one cell and placing it into an egg cell with its nucleus removed.
1952
Robert Briggs and Thomas King

They first used the process of nuclear transplant to insert the nucleus from a frog embryo cell into an enucleated frog egg. The resulting embryo grew into an adult, completing the “fantastical experiment” of Spemann.
1962
John Gurdon

-He used non-embryonic cells (cells from intestinal lining) of tadpoles.
-His experiment resulted into tadpoles which never survived into adulthood.
1977
Karl Illmensee

He claimed to have cloned mice from early embryos. But, he was discredited because he used questionable laboratory techniques.
1984
Steen Willadsen

He created the first cloned mammal, a sheep, by using nuclear transfer with DNA from embryonic cells.
1995
Keith Campbell and Ian Wilmut

-British scientists at the Roslin Institute
-They cloned 2 lambs, named Megan and Morag, from embryonic cells kept alive in culture before the cloning procedure.
-Enabled them to modify an embryonic cell’s genes in culture before cloning it to produce genetically modified livestock. (Roslin Technique)
The Birth of Dolly and the Parade of Mammalian Cloning
Scientists then began to focus their efforts on cloning a mammal with donor DNA from an adult cell.
July 1997
Polly

-The first genetically engineered cloned sheep from the Roslin Institute.
-Scientists inserted fragments of DNA containing the human gene for blood clotting factor IX, a protein used in the treatment of hemophilia B, into the cells of a sheep.
-Polly secreted the blood-clotting protein in her milk.
-Scientists hope to create a herd of Polly clones to replace traditional pharmaceutical methods for making this drug.

1996
Ian Wilmut

-He was able to clone the first mammal, a sheep, from the cell of an adult animal and named the sheep Dolly.
-The cloning process used is known as the Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, specifically the Roslin Technique.
-He used a cell taken from an udder of an adult female Finn Dorsett sheep and an enucleated egg from a Scottish blackface ewe.
-It took him 277 tries.
1998
Dolly gives birth to 3 healthy lambs by natural mating.

A ban on human cloning is agreed on by 19 European countries.
2001
Noah

The first cloned endangered species known as gaur. This cloning was developed by the Advanced Cell Technologies.
August 2001
President Bush permits limited federal funding of stem-cell research, using only stem-cell lines that have already been derived from human embryos.
November 2001
Scientist’s at a US biotech firm clone human embryos by replacing egg nuclei with mature nuclei from adult cells. The cloned cells divide briefly and then die.
December 2001
CC

-The Texas A&M University scientists create first cloned pet whose name is short for Copy Cat, Carbon Copy or Courtesy Copy.
-CC’s cloning opened the door for the cloning of favorite pets.
2003
Dolly is put down by a lethal anesthetic injection. She suffered from lung cancer caused by a virus and from arthritis. She was then six and a half years old.
February 2004
South Korean scientists Hwang Woo Suk and Dr. Moon Shin Yong clone 30 human embryos, grow them into blastocysts, harvest them for stem cells and create a single stem-cell colony.
The DNA of a cell gets replicated. The DNA strand is inserted into a bacterial plasmid. The plasmid then replicates making many copies of the exact same DNA code.
DNA Cloning
Even though the DNA cloned is identical to the DNA in the original cell, the whole animal is not identical. This is because in a cell, not only is there DNA in the nucleus, but also in the mitochondria. The DNA in the mitochondria is very unique because it plays an important role in the aging process!
Comparison with the natural way:

The fertilization of an egg by a sperm and the SCNT cloning method both result in the same thing: a dividing ball of cells, called an embryo.

An embryo is composed of cells that contain two complete sets of chromosomes. The difference between fertilization and SCNT lies in where those two sets originated.
In fertilization, the sperm and egg both contain one set of chromosomes. When the sperm and egg join, the resulting zygote ends up with two sets - one from the father (sperm) and one from the mother (egg).

In SCNT, the egg cell's single set of chromosomes is removed. It is replaced by the nucleus from a somatic cell, which already contains two complete sets of chromosomes. Therefore, in the resulting embryo, both sets of chromosomes come from the somatic cell.
Two techniques used in SCNT
Roslin Technique
Somatic cells with their nuclei are allowed to grow and divide and are then deprived of nutrients to bring the cells into a suspended or dormant stage. Next, an egg cell that does not contain its nucleus is placed closely to a somatic cell and both of these cells are shocked with an electrical pulse, making them fuse together. The egg (which has been allowed to develop into an embryo) is then implanted into a surrogate to be delivered.
Honolulu Technique
The nucleus from a somatic cell is removed and injected into an egg that has had its nucleus removed. The egg is then contained within a chemical solution and implanted into a surrogate for it to be developed and delivered.
The potential for abuse and devaluation of human life

-Reproduction: Industry rather than Procreation
Ethically, many religions smite it as inhumane.
Society-wise, cloning diminishes the property that we as humans have in large diversity and variety.
Psychological dangers towards clones once they discover that they are “pirated”.
REFERENCES
Wilmut, Ian. "Cloning." Microsoft® Encarta® 2007 [CD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2006.

"Genetic Engineering." Microsoft® Encarta® 2007 [CD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2006.

"Creosote Bush." Microsoft® Encarta® 2007 [CD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2006.


Encarta Encyclopedia, Jerry L. Ferrara/Photo Researchers Inc.


Encarta Encyclopedia, T.K. Wanstall/The Image Works


Encarta Encyclopedia, Charles Kingery/Phototake NYC
http://forum.spore.com/jforum/posts/list/69097.page


http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/genetic/cloning.htm


http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/


http://www.argosbiotech.de/700/timelines/cloning.htm


http://atheism.about.com/library/chronologies/blchron_sci_cloning.htm


http://robby.nstemp.com/about.html


http://library.thinkquest.org/C0122429/ethics/disadvantages.htm
http://prezi.com/eyj0ftwinzyh/cloning/


http://prezi.com/idyferkmbgw_/cloning/


Lemonick, Michael D. (February 23, 2004) “How a Team Cloned Human Cells to Fight Disease – And Why That’s Revolutionary.” Time Magazine. Pages 46 – 49.


Mappes, Thomas A. and DeGrazia, David (2001). Biomedical Ethics (5th Ed.). Page 561 - 568
MEDICINE
AGRICULTURE
Increase in food production

-Create livestock that are resistant to infectious diseases
-Cultivate plants that are stronger and more resistant to diseases
REPRODUCTION
A child for infertile couples
PRESERVATION OF SPECIES
Prevention of the extinction of endangered animals
Utilization of stem cells

-Treat diseases
-Reverse the aging process
Creation of mammals that produce milk containing a particular drug, revolutionizing drug development into an efficient and cost-effective process
Xenotransplantation:
the process of transplanting animal organs into humans
Reduction of the variability in a sample population used in experiments, making it easier for scientists to evaluate disease
Being born and raised as Christians, we can’t help but raise certain brows regarding the idea of having artificial copies of us. With the way that cloning has come, it’s as if we humans have grown attached to the fact that we have power in our hands. It is a worldly capacity that most of us blindingly believe to be already equivalent to that of our Creator. In addition to that, cloning seems to erase the essence of our humanity. It somehow makes us forget that we are social beings capable of tolerance regarding each unique individual’s identity.
Human beings
Human Identical Twins
Full transcript