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Mary Ivey

on 20 October 2014

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Origin and Outbreak
How does Ebola attack human cells?
Thesis Statement:
First Point: Origin and Outbreak
Second Point: Transmission
Third Point: Prevention and Control
Prevention and Control
The natural reservioir host is still unknown but it is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family could be it.

How long does it take for symptoms to occur after infection?
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
Thesis Statement:
It is an incredibly deadly virus the does not spread that easily throughout the human population.
It is an incredibly deadly virus that does not spread that easily throughout the human population.
First Reported Case
Cases after that/ Outbreak
Filoviridae includes 3 genera
There are 5 species that have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest.
The first 3 viruses have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa.
Zaire is the virus causing the 2014 west African outbreak
The Types
Close Up Look
Two Cases
EVD causes an acute, serious illness that is often fatal if left untreated.
Case fatality rates
Ebola Virus
In parts of Africa fruit bats are hunted for food. While cooking the bats would kill the virus, handling the animal in food preparation puts them in high risk of contracting the virus
Spreads via direct contact and with surfaces and materials that are contaminated
Does not become infectious until symptoms develop
Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.

Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola.

The end
People caring for infected individuals - including friends and relatives who may be taking care of infected persons at home or doctors treating the ill in hospitals - are among the most commonly infected.
How does it spread so quickly?
How the first person became infected is a mystery
In 1976 there were 318 cases and 280 deaths
Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation.

Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks.

Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission
Good Outbreak Control
Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission
from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat.

Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing.

Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission
from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids.

Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home.

Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home.
Outbreak containment measures including prompt and safe burial of the dead and identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola

It is important to separate the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread
basic hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, safe injection practices and safe burial practices

should wear face protection (a face shield or a medical mask and goggles), a clean, non-sterile long-sleeved gown, and gloves (sterile gloves for some procedures).

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