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Transcript of Ancient Greece
Started as Minoans then Mycenaen Civilization
Eventually became Greeks
philosophy: search for wisdom and knowledge
Golden Age of Greek philosophy was inspired by…
Interested in broad concepts:
truth, justice, and virtue
Socratic method: discover basic nature of ppl through asking long series of questions
Put to death
Topic wrote on: nature of truth & ideal form of government
Believed gov’t should be led by philosophers
Did NOT support Athenian democracy
Studied the nature of the world around him
Stressed the importance of making careful observations
Tutored Alexander the Great
Most important geographical aspects of Greece
Ancient Greece consisted mainly of a mountainous peninsula that extended out into the Mediterranean Sea.
Rugged mountains covered about ¾ of ancient Greece
Influenced Greek politics
Mountains divided Greece up
Harder to control by a single ruler
Around 2000 BC, Indo-Europeans migrated to Greek and became known as the Mycenaeans
Name came from their leading city, Mycenae
Mycenaean Civilization Develops
A warrior-king ruled the surrounding villages and farms.
A militaristic ruler controlled these Mycenaean towns
Most notable: Athens
These kings ruled from Greece from around 1600 BC to 1200 BC
Kings and Nobles extremely wealthy
controlled local production and commercial trade.
They also led armies in search of plunder
Culture and Trade
People living in Athens: poor and had little power
Wealthy, powerful aristocrats took over.
Gap between rich and poor led to conflict in Greece
In the past, Greece had been ruled by kings
Solon: Step Towards Democracy
Solon revised the laws in 590s BC
- tried to reduce slavery by encouraging trade
Most significant changes: more democratic government
All men: took part in assembly that governed the city and served on juries
Cleisthenes (official establishment of Democratic ideals)
During this time…
Tyrants (strong men who seized power by force) claimed to rule for the good of the people
Aristocrats thrown out
Increased trade made Athens rich
Stable and effective government
Development of democracy
Democracy: Ruled by the people.
Voting Rights: Only free males over age 20 who completed military training.
About 10% of the total population could participate in running the city.
Direct Democracy - people vote directly on issue
Conflict: between Greece and Persian Empire
Causes: Ionian Greeks wanted independence
Supported by rest of Greeks
Persian emperor Xerxes attacked Greece (Darius died before being able to attack)
- Reason: Persians humiliated after loss at Marathon.
2nd Persian Invasion
Persians put down Ionian uprising and then came to destroy the Greeks that sought to help the Ionians.
Athenians hear of attack and surprise Persians as they unload ships at
They defeated a much stronger army.
Persians were humiliated and furious.
1st Persian Invasion
What does that mean?
480 BC to 430 BC
Age of peace, harmony, stability, and prosperity
Leadership of Athens in the Persian Wars
Delian League: wealthy and powerful groups of city-states
commissioned building of the Parthenon
encouraged participation in gov’t
hired great artists and sculptors
What led Greece to the Golden Age?
Greek ruler after Persian wars, and during the Golden Age.
Wise and skillful leader
Economy and government thrived
Alliance formed by Greek city-states to defend against Persian invaders.
Athens took leadership role.
Trade brought great wealth
Merchants brought food and customs
Grand festivals, public celebrations, and public events
Theatre drama and athletic events
Life in the Golden Age
Homer: wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
Both were about the Trojan War
Iliad: last year of the Trojan War
Odyssey: heroes from the Trojan War
Murals often included scenes from the Iliad and the Odyssey
Greek Art &
Lived in Athens; when writing, critically examined sources; ignored irrelevant info.
Wrote The Histories: described major events of war, battles, and public debates
Herodotus & Thucydides
Other city-states resented Athenian rule and split creating the Peloponnesian league (Sparta). After Persian Wars.
Sparta attacks forcing all Athenian countryside inside city walls. Great plague kills many including Pericles.
Sparta defeat Athens.
Man who seized power by force
When all people vote directly on an issue
* 2 Persian Wars in which Greece won both.
2nd Persian war leads into ...
Primary Source – Xerxes (Persia and Greece)
War fought between Greeks (Mycenaens) and the people of Troy
Movie (Troy) focuses on Spartan Queen running off with Trojan Prince as reasoning for war (fiction)
Real reason is over trade and over control of the dardenelles (water route from Aegean to Black Sea)