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The Sea Snail

In a Chemist's Perspective
by

Alphonse Samson

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of The Sea Snail

Ziconotide "Prialt" The Painkiller Toxin It's a snail also known as the "Magician's Cone Snail" (from "conus" = cone, and "magus" = magic) What is a Conus magus? The Harpoon of Death The Proboscis <the poisoned fish> One does not simply deal with a conus magus . . .and their relatives It lives under the sea It could swallow 85% of its volume 1. Harpoon
2. Proboscis
5. Foot May expand 50 times its size Taxonomy:
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Order: Sorbeoconcha
Family: Conidae
Genus: Conus
Species: Magus "Stomach foot"
Includes snails and slugs "Soft" And they are found in. . . Tropical countries and Littoral zones (near shore and coral reefs) Neurex Corp. and University of Utah A Case of Biopiracy The Philippines and the Filipino Scientists The Conotoxin Ziconotide LD_50: 50 - 60 mg/kg Average fall time of victim: 1.8 mins Average time of fatality: 3 mins
(given prompt medical attention, an average human may still survive) LD_50: 10 mg/kg Average fall time of victim: 1.5 mins Average time of fatality: 2.2 mins
(this also applies to humans) Conus magus Conus geographus In comparison with... C. magus C. geographus Venom Strength because it is smaller than Less deadly More deadly <there are many types of toxins that cone snails produce> cono- "cone snail" + toxin = conotoxin But how do venoms actually work? The Venom Average Speed: 0.43 km/h slow, but. . . . . .DEADLY "WTH?! We can't enter?" Blocked Ion Channel Mu Conotoxin Normal Ion Channel "Yay! Let's all enter!" Blocked Ion Channel "WTH we can't enter?" Synapse failure Paralysis Nerve-muscle tissue failure "Narcotic"Muscular contraction/relaxation Flaccid / Excitotic all muscles are relaxed all muscles are contracted By the way, there are two main types of analgesics. Opioid Non-Opioid "Narcotic" "Non-narcotic" -Act centrally (central nervous system)
-Causes addiction (due to Opium)
-Relief for moderate to severe pain
-Schedule-controlled drugs (needs correct dosage)
-No anti-inflammatory effect (alters nerve signals) Example: Morphine -Respiratory depresssion
-Dizziness, Nausea
-Vomiting
-Constipation
-Sedation
-Mental clouding Adverse Effects: -Addiction -Acts on the peripheral nervous system
-Not addictive (no opium)
-Good for mild to moderate pain only
-Non-scheduled / non-controlled drugs
-Anti-inflammatory effect* (targets the root source of pain / inflammation) Examples: Acetaminophen, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Aspirin) Adverse Effects -May lead to kidney and liver damage
-Gastrointestinal bleeding
-Less "painkilling factor" than Opioid painkillers
-Cardiovascular effects (complications) Omega Conotoxins = Analgesic: medicines that cause pain relief Without Calcium, vesicles for Pain Neurotransmitters fail to form Neurochemical transmission inhibited:
Pain message not sent Inhibition of pain sensors (primary nociceptors) Blocked Calcium
Channel Calcium
Ion NO ENTRY Spinal Column The Brain "Hey, I don't feel pain anymore!" Not an opioid nor a non-opioid.
It is a painkiller under a new classification. Neuron-type Calcium Channel Blocker -inhibits N-type Calcium Channels
-contains disulfide bonds which bridge Cysteine amino acids (giving its shape to block channels) Prialt Advantages Disadvantages Non-addictive, non-habit forming Relieves moderate to severe pain, specially chronic pain 1000X more powerful than Opioid (Morphine) Liquid-based, injectable, instant effects Expensive (branded and patented) Contraindicated in patients with a preexisting history of psychosis Structure C-102, H-172. N-36, O-32, S-7 Weight: 2369 daltons Overdosage may cause: abnormal gait, dizziness, nystagmus,
confusion, somnolence, fever, postural hypotension, urinary
retention, nausea and vomiting Dosage via Intrathecal Administration

Recommended initial dosage
2.4 mcg per day / 0.1 mcg per hour

Maximum dosage (after initial doses):
19.2 mcg per day / 0.8 mcg per hour Synthesis Dr. Baldomero Olivera A Filipino-American Neuropharmacologist and Professor of Molluscan Studies in University of Utah Elan Corporation (Neurex) patented Ziconotide (SNX-111) derived from Philippine Sea Snails 1. Theft on living organisms and genomes
2. Infringement on the sovereignty of people
3. Usurpation of genetic materials by way of patents Thank you for your attention and participation! Conus magus: In Chemistry
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