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Algae for biofuel production

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Radosław Górecki

on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of Algae for biofuel production

Algae for biofuel production
Global Energetics ...
Coal
are based on...
Earth Gas
Nuclear Energy
Crude Oil
What is the problem?
The Limitation!
Limitation of resources!
Fossil fuels are the basic energy source in the world, but since continous growth of human population, the resources of fossil fuels are running out. There is a need for new sources of energy!
Driven on those sources of power?

Well... I am not sure...
Bio Energy
But can you imagine... cars...
or planes...
Which is the oldest known source of energy
It is energy which comes from processes of burning biomass
Fortunately,
it has changed a lot from this time
Nowadays there are many different types of biomass sources such as energy crops, agricultural residues or forest biomass.
But is it enough to provide the sustainable production of biofuels?
"Food for Fuel" argument
Jean Ziegler of the United Nations
" [It is] a crime against humanity to divert arable land to the production of crops which are then burned for fuel"
This argument resonates with the public awareness of rising food prices.
Demand for land for energy crops compete with the alternative uses.
Such as production of food but also afforestation, urbanisation etc.
It makes land availability a huge limiting factor for biofuel production!
But algae can be very attractive alternative...
Algae has such potential, due to:
High productivity
Cultivation on marginal lands
Potential to utilize carbon dioxide
There are four major types of microalgae cultivation:
But what exactly algae are?
Algae are a very large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms
Most are photosynthetic and "simple" because they lack many of the distinct cell organelles and cell types found in land plants.
Macroalgae
Macroalgae are multicellular organisms, most of them are photosynthetic
Microalgae
Microalgae are microscopic photosynthetic organisms.
Both - macro and microalgae are found in marine and freshwater environments
Phototrophic cultivation
Heterotrophic cultivation
Mixotrophic cultivation
Photoheterotrophic cultivation
What we can use them for?
What types of biofuels can we produce?
How they are produced?
Light
(such as sunlight) is used as energy source
Inorganic carbon (such as carbon dioxide) is used as carbon source

Microalgae use organic carbon (such as glucose, sucrose, dextrose) as both energy and carbon source
It grows under
dark conditions
This method is used by Solazyme Inc.
Microalgae undergo photosynthesis
Both organic and inorganic carbon are used as a carbon source for growth
It is most commonly used cultivation method
Compared to the previous two methods this one is rarely used for algae oil production.
This is when microalgae
require
light when using organic compounds as the carbon source
In mixotrophic cultivation algae can use organic compunds to serve purpose for energy source.
Chemicals
Nutrition
Health sciences
Fuels
Soaps and other personal care products
Dielectric fluids for transformers
Used as partial replacement of eggs, butter and vegetable oil
Skin care products, dietary supplements
Biodiesel
Bioethanol
Biomethane (Biogas)
Biohydrogen
Algae contains lipids, which fatty acids profile is suitable for the biodiesel synthesis.

Under suitable culture conditions, some microalgal species are able to accumulate up to 50-70% of lipid per dry weight.
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is a product of biochemical process - fermentation.

Production of ethanol is based on
fermentation
process.
In Brazil you can tank Hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water) and in USA there is E85 (85% ethanol and 15% petrol)
It can be produced from a large variety of carbohydrates from sugar and starch crops.
Biodiesel is also made from crops such as rapeseed, but microalgae typically can produce more oil while consuming less of space, using land unsuitable for agriculture.
Biodiesel
Bioethanol
Biomethane
Biohydrogen
Biogas contain mainly methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S).

Its production is based on anaerobic disgestion, and it is commonly produced in facilities like wastewater treatment plants or waste management facilities.
It is hydrogen produced biologically - most commonly by algae and bacteria.
Little quiz... :)

During Transesterification fatty acids reacts with alcohol and form esters and glycerol.
Microalgae contain lipids as membrane components, storage products or metabolites. Those lipids/oils are extracted from algae by filtration or and then converted to fuel.
This process is called
Transesterification
.
The algae starch is converted by the enzymes to sugar, then sugar is converted to ethanol by yeast (Saccharomycess cerevisiae).
Starch of microalgae is released from the cells using mechanical equipment or enzyme
When cells begin to degrade yeast are added to the biomass to start fermentation
The product of fermentation is ethanol.
Ethanol is drained from the tank and pumped to the distillation unit.
The production of methane is based on anaerobic disgestion.
Biomass is harvested and concentrated, then methanogenic inoculum is added to initiate the process of disgestion.
Biomass
Concentrated Biomass
+
Inoculum
Concentration
Methane
Disgestion
During this process methane volatilize.
Biohydrogen can be produced in the same time with methane, as it also volatilize during disgestion.
What are the compounds of biogas?
What kind of fuels can we produce from algae?
What are the four major types of microalgae cultivation?
What argument stands for finding new sources for biofuel production?
What are the main sources of biomass?
Hydrogen can be also produced by photobiological water splitting in closed photobioreactor.
When deprived of sulfur some algae species will produce hydrogen instead of oxygen during photosynthesis.
Hydrogen is mainly used as a fuel for fuel cells - which produce electricity to i.e. electric motors.
But hydrogen can be used in a regular engines, adjusted to burn it.
Does during heterotrophic cultivation algae use light?
What is the main content of algae that is used in biodiesel synthesis?
On what process is production of bioethanol based?
What are the two major factors, which are necessary in phototrophic micoralgae cultivation?
Which is the most popular construction to produce the power from hydrogen?
a) Fuel Cell
b) Hydrogen - adjusted engine
Thank you for your attention :)
Radosław Górecki
rad.gorecki@gmail.com
Radosław Górecki
rad.gorecki@gmail.com
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Since micoralgae can provide greater
growth of biomass than macroalgae....
It is good idea to focus on them...
Volatilizing hydrogen is captured and stored as a liquid or compressed gas.
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