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INGENIERIA EN EL PERU INGLES

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Transcript of INGENIERIA EN EL PERU INGLES

Engineering in ancient Peru
LUIS IGNACIO RAMIREZ MARTINEZ
The geography

"A territory that still trembles, is agitated and modified to seek stability. Finally, and in short, a territory in which all the classical rules of geography break in violent defiance of its settlers"
Lived in small valleys
Used groundwater or brought it from heights with impressive engineering works.
Dominated the puna
It raised cities in the high Andean plains
Road systems
Andenes
The inhabitant

The Andean civilization was, from some very ancient moment, indigenous and in addition, and that it was practically disconnected from the rest of the world.
A problem?
The Nordic inhabitants: Eskimos, red and Mayan skins; That according to these theory, had to precede them, presented characteristics very different from the human beings of the Andean settlements.
Esquimales
Pieles Roja
Mayas
The job
In the Andean world energy was scarcely developed.
Forms of work:
The mita:
the tribute that served the Sum God and the State.
The minga:
which served the ayllu, and which is invoked and respected until today to execute the buildings in the informal neighborhoods of urban areas of coastal cities composed mostly of populations of mountain origin.
Ayni:
it consisted of the exchange of labor among the ayllus.
The transmission and conservation of ideas
Who ever thought to fit stone with no stone between them?
Who imagined the perimeter bevelling of the stones to form a cushion that reflects the light and creates fascinating chlorides?
Who came up with the earthwork so that agriculture could dominate the verticality of the territory?
Who planned Chan Chan?
Chavín
Tiahuanaco
Chan Chan
How were ideas transmitted?
"Engineering can not doubt the existence of creativity and skills for the transmission, materialization and permanence of things that were originally ideas. Otherwise, it is not possible to explain the construction of works of common root."
The Quipus
Its objective is essentially very limited accounting, perhaps only useful for tax purposes, but with little statistical value.
It is held that knots represented units, tens and hundreds, and distances between knots and their colors the different interests of central or local government, such as land, production, taxes and battles.
The Tocapus
These are geometric drawings, rectangular or square, arranged in a repetitive pattern of horizontal and vertical rows. Inside, the tocapus have abstract geometric designs, broken bands, diagonal lines and conventional flowers.
The most commonly used colors are black, red, yellow and white.
  Some researchers argue that the tocapu represented a type of language or code of information, as a writing.
Ecological adaptation and complementarity
The achievement of ecological complementation implies massive population movements in search of resources not only complementary, but indispensable to not starve to death.
The search for products led the Andean people, undoubtedly from the oldest settlements, to create very strong links with the coastal zones.
The history...
The beggining:
When maturity is reached to make the "revolutionary" leap to the Neolithic and leave the Paleolithic, in areas where man achieves this, things are discovered and they accelerate creativity and technological innovations "
Chavín
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