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THE CIVIL WAR
Transcript of THE CIVIL WAR
In 1860 Lincoln faced three candidates in the race for the Presidency. One of them was Douglass. Of the four Lincoln was firmly against slavery. To preserve the Union, Lincoln said he would leave slavery alone where it already existed. However, if no new slave states were admitted to the Union, the free states would keep their majority in Congress, and the South would never gain political power. Some Southern states talked about seceding if Lincoln was elected. To secede meant that the states would leave the Union. Lincoln called this talk of leaving the Union "humbug"
Lincoln won the election. Would some of the Southern states leave the Union? In December 1860, the state of South Carolina voted to secede. By the following March, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, and South Carolina had formed a new country, the Confederate of America, or the Confederacy. They drafted a constitution and named a president. They chose Jefferson Davis, a United States Senator from Mississippi and a planter who had fought in the Mexican War. The Union was now split in two.
STRENGTHS OF THE CONFEDERACY
BOTH THOUGHT THE WAR WOULD BE OVER IN MONTHS
Fort Sumter was the first battle of the Civil War. A civil war is a war between two group of civilians of the me country. No one was killed at Fort Sumter. However, the battle shook the nation. After the battle, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee left the Union. with 11 states, the confederacy thought it would win a quick victory.
Slavery is when black does stuff for the white without choice and they don't get treated fairly! Instead of getting paid they got beaten! No one should of had to live like this but people did! we are lucky it just wasn't us.
THE CIVIL WAR
Nat Turner led a small band of enslaved people in Southampton Count, Virginia
One of the people that spoke out against slavery was Frederick Douglass.
Elizabeth Jennings climbed aboard a white only bus and refused to leave
One of the best known volunteer on the underground rail road was Harriet Tubman. In 1849 Tubman heard that she and other slaves on her Maryland plantation were to be sold farther south. Tubman knew that life was harder there. She told her husband John, "There's two things i have a right to: death or liberty. One or the other mean to have. No one will take me back alive." Although her husband refused to join her, Tubman fled from the plantation in the middle of the night. she headed for the house of a white woman known for helping escaping slavery. The woman gave her two slips of paper with the names of families on the route north who would help her. After traveling 90 miles, she reached the free soils of Pennsylvania. Tubman returned 19 times to guide her family and many others to freedom.
The Souths greatest strength was its army. Southern boys grew up riding horses and using guns to hunt. The South also had many well-trained officers. Among them was General E. Lee of Virginia. Lee graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point and had served in the military for more than 30 years. When the war began, Lincoln asked Lee to command the Union army. Lee did not like slavery. However, Lee's loyalty to Virginia was important to him, "I cannot fight against my birthplace." Lee soon became commander of the Confederate army. Only one-fourth of Southerns owned slaves. Yet many Southerns who did not own slaves volunteered to fight. They believed they were fighting to protect their way of life
The north had a larger population and more resources than the confederacy. This made it possible for the North to build and supply a larger army. Most of the people and factories were in the North. The factories would be used to make weapons and uniforms for the Union army. In addition, the North was better able to feed a larger army. Although the South was a farming area, the North grew most of country's food. Finally, the North had most of the country's railroads, which could be used for moving soldiers and supplies.
this is how we would of lived all in chains!
To defeat the Confederacy, President Lincoln and General Winfield Scott had made a plan for winning the war. Scott called the Anaconda Plan, after the anaconda snack, which squeezed its prey to death. Scott's plan was not popular at first. Many Northerners thought that if the Union army could capture the Confederate capital of Raymond, Virginia, the war would be over quickly. Only later people would realize the importance of the Anaconda Plan.
In the 1830's Samuel Morse invented a devise to send messages by electricity. It was called the telegraph. It sent messages using a series of clicks and sounds. Morse also developed the Morse Code--an alphabet of long and short bursts of electricity that stood for letters and numbers. Before the telegraph it could take weeks fro a letter to arrive. With the telegraph, a message was received within minutes. Soon, telegraph wires and offices sprung up all over the country. By the 1861, the Western Union Company had installed 67,000 miles of telegraph lines across the country.
On July 21, 1861, the Union army fought Confederate troops at a stream in Manassas, Virginia called Bull Run. At first the Union appeared to be winning. As some Confederates began to flee, An officer noticed that General T.J. Jackson was standing firm with his troops. "There stands Jackson like stone wall!" he cried. Jackson soon was known as Tomas "Stonewall" Jackson. The confederates regrouped around Jackson in what came to be known as the First Battle of Bull Run. Soon, frightened Northern troops began running away in panic. The Union troops retreated to Washington D.C. The war's first major battle ended with a victory for the South.
MONITOR VS MERRIMACK
By 1864 almost 700 ships were in the Union navy. In contrast, the South had few ships. So they decided to improve the ones they had. The Confederates raised a sunken ship Union ship named the Merrimack and covered it with thick metal plates. On March 8, 1862, the Merrimack, now renamed the Virginia, sank two Northern ships and defeated three other ones near Hampton, Virginia. The next day a strange Union ship appeared in the harbor. It was the Monitor, an ironclad Union ship. For more than four hours the Monitor and the Virginia battled. In the end, neither one could damage the other.
In the spring of 1862, Union soldiers marched into Virginia. They were soon beaten back by General E. Lee. For the next few months, Confederate generals fought their way into Maryland. It appeared that the Confederacy was about to win their Independence. That hope faded when they met Union forces at Antietam, Maryland, on September 17, 1862. The Confederacy retreated after one of the bloodiest battles in United States history.
THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
Five days after the battle of Antietam, President Lincoln changed the way people thought of war. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation. To emancipate means to free someone. The proclamation said of January 1, 1863, "all persons held as slave within any states... in rebellion against the United States shall be than, hencefourth, and forever free." The Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery in the Confederacy. However it did not end slavery in the slave states the stayed in the Union. What had been a struggle to preserve the Union was now also a battle to end slavery. On January 1, 1863, when the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect, African Americans greeted the day with joy. However, it took years for the Union army to put the Emancipation Proclamation into effect through out the Confederacy. The news did not reach African Americans in Texas until June 19,1865. June 19 often called "Juneteenth" is still cerebrated in African American communities in Texas and other areas as the day slavery ended.
WOMEN AND THE WAR
Woman were not allowed in either the Union or Confederacy armies. Yet they contributed to the war effort in many ways. The war forced many woman to work outside home for the first time. Others, like Malinda Blalock of North Carolina, disguised themselves s men to fight on the battlefield. Many women in the North worked in factories and stores when the men were away at war. More than 3,000 Northern women worked as army nurses Mary Ann Bickerdayke, for example, served in 19 battles. She preformed medical operations and passed out food and supplies. Clara Barton from Massachusetts also began her war work by passing out food and supplies to Union troops in Virginia. Later she assisted with hundreds of operations even digging out bullets out of soldiers wounds with a penknife. Union general George McClellan called Barton "the true heroine of age, the angle of the battlefield." After the war Barton found the American Red Cross in 1881. Like women in the North, women in the South also helped out by many ran their family business, farms and plantations. Sally Tompkins ran a privet hospital in Raymond, which treated more than 1,300 soldiers. her hospital saved all but 73 of them. This was the best record of any war hospital North or South. When Jefferson Davis placed all Southern hospital under the controll of the military, Sally Tompkins was made a captain. Tompkins was the only women to hold a militay rank in the confederacy army.
By the spring of 1863 , the Anaconda Plan was close achieving its goal. In the West Ulysses S. Grant had won some important Union campaigns at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, Tennessee. Vicksburg, Mississippi was a key city guarding the Mississippi River between Memphis and New Orleans. Grant tried to capture the city from the North, but a steep hill protected the Northern edge of the city. Grant realized tha getting over hill will be too difficult, and so he attacked from southern side. Grant trapped the Confederate in the city. The attack continued for 48 days. On July 3, 1863, lacking supplies, the Confederates surrendered. Later Grant said "The fate of the Confederacy was sealed when Vicksburg fell."
While Grant pounded Vicksburg, General E. Lee's men faced Union troops in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. On July 3, General George Pickett was order to charge the center of the Union lines across a great open field. The Confederate army made what came to be known as Picket's Charge and the Union troops fired. Lee's army had to retreat.More than 28,000 Confederate soldiers were killed or wounded. The Union victories at both Vicksburg and Gettysburg had changed he course of the war in favor of the North. Months later President Lincoln came to Gettysburg to declare the battlefield a national cemetery. Read the Gettysburg address he made there.The Gettysburg address lasted only two minuets. When President Lincoln finished speaking, the audience was silent. Lincoln thought he's speech was a failure. However it became one of the greatest speech ever given. The President's words inspired the war-weary Union not to give up on the war. He made it clear the democracy, a united country and the abolition of slavery were causes worth fighting for to the bitter end
In September 1864 Sherman captured and burned Atlanta, Georgia, one of the South's larger cities. Sherman's troops destroyed nearly everything in their path. His troops than marched to Savannah, Georgia. His 60,000 men cut a 300-mile path of destruction across Georgia. In December 1864, Sherman captured Savannah. From Savannah Sherman marched into South Carolina. As they marched, the Union troops destroyed or burned down nearly every building in their path.
ELECTION OF 1864
While Grant and Sherman waged war in the South President Lincoln had to fight for his re-election in 1864. As the election approached, many believed Lincoln would lose. The nation was tired of war and some called for peace talks.
In February 1865, Congress voted to pass the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It was ratified by the states and became law on December 6, 1865. It read: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Although the Thirteenth Amendment settled the issue of slavery in the United States, the place of African Americans society remained unclear.
Nine months after the battle at Petersburg began, Grant's 125,000 men were closing in on Lee's starving army of 35,000. Finally, on April 2, 1865, Lee took his army west, hoping to find food and gather Confederate troops. In response to Lee's actions, Union forces entered Petersburg and Raymond. The Union army was able to ct off Lee's supplies and put him and his army in danger of being surrounded, "There is nothing left for me to do, but go to General Grant,," Lee said. The Confederate was ready to surrender. On April 9, 1865, Grant and Lee met in Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Lee wore a crisp grey uniform. "I have to look my best," he said "I may be Grants prisoner." Grant did not take any prisoners. Instead Grant said "Each man will be aloud to return to his home,...." After Lee's surrender, Jefferson Davis fled westward, where he hoped to keep the Confederacy alive. On May 10, 1865, he was captured. Davis was imprisoned for two years at Fort Monroe in Virginia.
ASSASSINATION OF LINCOLN
Five days after Grant and Lee agreed to the terms of surrender, President and Mrs.Lincon were watching a play at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. Suddenly a gun shot rang out. John Wilkins Booth had shot the President. The next morning, April 15, 1865, President Lincoln died. The poet Walt Whitman expressed the country's sadness: O Captain! My Captain, our fearful trip is done, the ship has weather'd every storm, the prize we sought is won.
Whitman's "prize" was many things. It was an end to war, and end to slavery, and a new beginning for the United States, which was united once again!