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Transcript of Ferdinand Magellan
-He was an orphan and his parents were nobles
-Worked as a page in the Portuguese court when he was young
-Was a student at Queen Leonora's School of Pages, where he learned subjects such as cartography, astronomy and celestial navigation
-Served as an officer in the Portugese navy when he was older
-Around 1514, Magellan had a disagreement with the king and left Portugal
-He went to work for the Spanish in 1517
-He died on th 27th of April, during the Battle of Mactan, at Cebu, Phillippines What was Ferdinand Magellan like? -Magellan was probably a very boastful, stubborn and noble person. I deduced this from the following pieces of evidence:
-He refused any outside help in the Battle of Mactan, just so that he could show the natives how powerful and invincible he was
-He said that he would finish the battle himself and refused the help of 1000 natives
He went to great lengths to evangelize all the indigenous people he encountered
-"I hope that...the fame of so noble a captain will not become effaced in our times. Among the other virtues he possessed, he was more constant than all the others, and more accurately than any man in the world did he understand sea charts and navigation. And that his was the truth was seen openly, for no other had so much natural talent nor the boldness to learn how to circumnavigate the world, as he had almost done."- Pigafetta
-"The wounded leader 'turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats', and without that concern, 'Not a single one of us would have been saved in the boats, for, while he was fighting, the others retired to the boats'"-Pigafetta Was his trip considered a success? Cebu and Mactan Portugal Around 1470: Ferdinand Magellan was born here. 1505: Magellan joins an expedition to India 1512: Injured in a Portuguese expedition to Morocco, has a quarrel with the commanding officer and leaves (without permission) 1513-1518: Has an argument with the king and leaves Portugal Somewhere in Spain 1517-1519: King Charles I of Spain is convinced by Magellan and funds his (Magellan's) voyage 5 ships are provided: The Trinidad, the San Antonio, the Concepion, the Victoria and the Santiago September: The fleet set off from Sanlucar, under the command of Ferdinand Magellan San Julian Bay March 1520: The fleet arrive April: Magellan invites the spanish officers to dine with him on the Trinidad He sends a messenger to the Victoria, to demand that the captain report to him immediately The spanish captain laughs after hearing the message and is stabbed in the throat by the messenger None of them come and they demand that the fleet return to Spain The two other ships are taken over by sailors loyal to Magellan and a third ship surrenders after being hit by cannon fire from the Trinidad Magellan regains control of his fleet and the leaders of the rebellion are put in chains or stranded ashore and left to fend for themselves The Strait of Magellan Around August 24: After fleet departs, Santiago is wrecked in a storm Around the 21st of October, they spot the strait and send a ship or two to investigate the area The San Antonio sails back to Spain and spreads lies about Magellan The San Antonio does not return Late November, around the 28th: After sailing through the strait, the fleet enters a new sea, which they call the Pacific, because of its gentle winds. Pacific Ocean For approximately 99 days, they sail across the Pacific without making any landings At least 29 of the crew died of starvation and disease and another 30 became so ill that they could not even move Was the trip worth it? What dangers did he face? Guam March 6, 1521: They reach Guam The natives at Guam were friendly, but not very rich They had a habit of stealing whatever they could take Due to this, Magellan called the island 'Ladrones', (Island of Thieves) April 7: The fleet arrive in Cebu Magellan faced dangers such as starvation and disease (like scurvy), mutiny, the Portuguese Government (who considered Magellan a traitor), attacks from natives and bad weather (sudden storms and huge waves). Although the Spanish authorities were happy to receive the cloves, the crew were not thanked very much. Bibliography Over The Edge of The World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe, Laurence Bergreen, Harper Perennial 2004 http://www.notablebiographies.com/Lo-Ma/Magellan-Ferdinand.html http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/magellan.html?c=y&page=1
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/magellan.html?c=y&page=3 http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/10-surprising-facts-about-magellans-circumnavigation-of-the-globe Beyond The Horizons: Magellan and Da Gama, Clint Twist, Evans Brothers Limited 1993 http://prezi.com/ym3njbz1tp1e/ferdinand-magellan/ http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/people-timelines/13-ferdinand-magellan-timeline.htm More sources https://sites.google.com/a/apps.edina.k12.mn.us/ferdinand-magellan-website-by-anna/home/challenges http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/Fern%E3o_de_Magalh%E3es Benefit Cost They got spices Many lives were lost 3 of the ships were lost They proved that the world was round http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=characters&FileName=magellan.php http://www.heritage-history.com/books/towle/magellan/zpage202.gif http://www.heritage-history.com/books/towle/magellan/zpage094.gif What did he discover? What did he achieve? Magellan and his fleet were probably the first to discover an animal they described as 'camel without humps', which could have been a llama, an alpaca, a guanaco or a vicuña. They also discovered a creature that they called a black 'goose' which had to be skinned rather than plucked. This was a penguin. What supplies did Magellan bring along? Magellan brought around 24 charts, 6 compasses, 36 compass needles, 21 wooden quadrants (used for measuring the angle between the sun and the horizon), 7 astrolabes and 18 hour-glasses. He brought 1000 lances, 125 swords, 60 crossbows, 4320 crossbow bolts, 120 short throwing spears, 1140 hand-thrown darts and probably 12 cannons (on the Victoria). Magellan had fresh water (which was topped up with rainwater whenever possible), biscuits, wine, olive oil, dried anchovies, dried pork, cheese and a small amount of sugar. He also carried cloth, felt caps, printed handkerchiefs, combs, mirrors, brass bowls, knives, scissors, fishbooks, 250 kilograms ofglass beads and 20,000 hawkbells, which were all for trading. The crew also observed the two closest galaxies, the small and large Magellanic clouds, which is only visible from the southern hemisphere. The fleet also discovered that they had won a day after travelling westward around the Earth. Upon their return, they found a difference of one day between their calendars and other calendars, even though they accurately kept track of their ship's log. This led to the need for an International Date Line. Magellan led the first expedition to circumnavigate the globe, albeit he himself was never able to complete the journey. The inhabitants of Cebu welcomes the fleet-when Magellan claims the land for Spain and suggests that the local chief become a Christian (to set an example to the other natives) the chief agrees. Later, the chief sends a message saying that Cilapulapu, the ruler of the nearby island of Mactan, refuses to accept the authority of the king of Spain. April 27: Magellan goes to subjugate Cilapulapu with a party of 60 armed men in 3 rowing boats. For several hours, they fight each other, and eventually, he decides to retreat to the boats. However, the natives close in on him and he is attacked. His men try to save him, but cannot and return to Cebu with the sad news. The Return May: Concepcion is burned, the two remaining ships continue the voyage, led by Captain Juan de Elcano November 8, 1521: The crew arrive at the Spice Islands and trade with the natives to get cloves (a spice) December 21: The fleet leaves the Spice Islands, but Trinidad stays the back for repairs and is later captured by the Portuguese. The Victoria avoid Portuguese patrols because they are carrying an illegal cargo of cloves After rounding the Cape of Good Hope, they head north towards the Cape Verde Islands, where the Portuguese government discover the cargo of cloves and manage to seize about 13 of the crew September 6, 1522: The Victoria returns to Sanlucar, with only 18 of the fleet's original crew of 260 They circumnavigated the globe They encountered the Los Patagones of Patagonia Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Mid-December: They visit Rio de Janeiro to get some fresh water and food February 3: The fleet continues southward until they reach the land they later called Patagonia Patagonia Here, whilst staying at San Julian, they encounter... a giant, one of the local inhabitants, dancing, leaping and singing while throwing sand and dust on his head Magellan sends a man to leap and sing like the giant, to show him friendship, and the giant, appearing to be eager to socialize, continues dancing. They lead him to a small island, where the captain is waiting. When he sees them, he marvels and becomes afraid, and he raises one finger upward, believing that they came from heaven or somewhere above Later, they show the giant his reflection in a mirror and he is greatly terrified and regains his composure after the mirror is removed. Some after this, they meet the other natives and call them Los Patagones ('the people with big feet'), in reference to the bundles of grass that they wrapped around their feet and made them look bigger The tall native is baptized and named John Although Magellan and his crew might not have been the first to discover them, they encountered the natives of Patagonia. Very little is known about them. By circumnavigating the globe, his crew had proved that the world was round. When Magellan and his fleet sailed across the Pacific Ocean and reached Guam, they had made the longest voyage without a stop that any European had made so far. The lies spread by the mutineers from the San Antonio damaged Magellan's reputation and he was considered a criminal. The route that Magellan used was too long and dangerous for trade and cost a lot to sail through. 3 out of 5 of the ships had been lost and less than 1 in 10 sailors returned alive. Thus, they did not consider the voyage a success. Money and equipment The need for an International Date Line was soon realized Although many lives were lost, I think
that the trip was worth it because
they circumnavigated the world and
proved that it was round. However, I
don't think that the spices were worth the trouble. Final Judgement: