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History of the Computer
Transcript of History of the Computer
History of the Computer
The First Computer
Date: June 26, 1947
Description: The "ENIAC" (Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator) was invented by John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert. This computer was mainly used by the American military to accurately calculate different weapons for target accuracy. The ENIAC was massive and contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, and around 5 million hand-soldered joints. It weighed more than 30 tons, took up 18,000 square feet, and used 150 of power ( It was rumored that sometimes lights in Philadelphia were dimmed sometimes when it turned on).
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because this computer was able to calculate large numbers quickly. Calculating numbers was important because many computers need to do binary code calculations quickly to do many tasks.
The Computer Keyboard
Date: June 21, 1947
Description: Before the modern day keyboard was invented, people manually punched holes in a punch cards and then inserting the card into a computer. Although this was a good way of inserting information into a computer, it was tedious and took too long. People fixed this problem by using an electromagnetically controlled teletype. They would insert a punch card into the teletype and the keys pressed on the teletype would punch a series of holes into the punch card.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because users use keyboards to type out commands or words into the computer. Without this invention, we might be using a longer or more difficult way to insert letters and numbers into a computer.
The Computer Mouse
Date: June 25, 1964
Description: While sitting in a conference room Doug Engelbart sat and thought about how to make the computer more user friendly. He realized by using a pair of small wheels traversing a tabletop, one wheel turning horizontally, one turning vertically, the computer could track their combined rotations and move the cursor on the display accordingly. The wheels would function like a mouse wheel.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because we use a mouse to click and choose commands on computers. Without this invention, we might still be using switches to click what command we want.
The Integrated Circuit
Date: 1958 - 1959
Description: Computers during this time didn't have microchips or circuits. They used big and bulky machines like transistors, resistors, capacitors, and big wires. Around this time two separate inventors that were unaware of each other's ideas were working on an answer to answer the same problem: how to do more of less. These two inventors were Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce. These two geniuses figured out the solution to this problem by creating an integrate circuit. Instead of separating transistors, resistors, capacitors, and big wires, they put it all on to a tiny piece of semiconductor material (Kilby used germanium and Noyce used silicon).
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because this was the first step to making every computer smaller, better, and faster. If we didn't have this we wouldn't be able to invent the microprocessor.
The First Microprocessor
Description: Shortly after the integrated circuit was invented, the first microprocessor was invented by Intel. This first microprocessor was called the "Intel 4004". The microprocessor is one of the most important components of the computer because it is the central processing unit (CPU) of an electronic computer. The microprocessor is implemented in an integrated circuit.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because many computers use microprocessors to be able to handle the amount of load the computer processes. this makes our computers much faster and better.
The First PC
Date: December 19, 1974
Description: Before the first PC was invented, computers were big and took up one big room like the ENIAC. In 1974, ED Roberts invented the first computer that could fit on a single table. this type of computer was called the PC because it was your very own personal computer. The PC ED Roberts invented was the MITS Altair 8800. The MITS Altair 8800 operated by switching switches and was like a big calculator. The Altair however had to be assembled by the buyer and often didn't work.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because this allowed many computers to be shrunken down to a smaller size. This also allowed computers to use one motherboard and still work instead of many motherboards.
The First GUI
Description: Computer users found it very frustrating that computers were not very user friendly. To fix this problem XEORX created the first GUI (Graphic User Interface) computer called the Alto. It cost $10,000 to build but was never sold to the public. Unlike IBM and DOS that used keyboards to move files GUI let the user move around a mouse on a screen to click, move, and drag files and documents on the screen.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because all computers today use a GUI (Graphic User Interface) to make computers easier to use.
The First PC sold with a GUI
Date: January 24, 1984
Description: The first PC with a GUI was sold by Apple. They had gotten this idea from XEORX. This computer was called the Macintosh and sold for a whopping price of $9,995 and $15 million dollars of advertising. Because of the amount of money it cost to buy the sales were slow at the start but soon grew fast.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because many companies like Windows also started to do the same thing. As a result, this increased competition and allowed technology to advance much faster with killer applications and better computers.
The Ethernet Cord
Date: May 22, 1973
Description: An Ethernet cord is a cord that connects a computer to the wall to allow access to the internet. The Ethernet cord was invented by Robert M. Metcalfe. Robert's invention allowed people who owned computers to be connected to each other for the very first time. Although, it only allowed 2.94 megabits per second and this was considered to be very fast.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because although Ethernet cord's today are much faster, all Ethernet cords are built the same but with different materials. The Ethernet cord allowed people to have faster internet upload and download speed.
Date: August 29, 1969
Description: The internet is allows people to connect with others without meeting each other. Steve Carr, Steve Crocker, Jeff Rulifson, and Ron Stoughton invented the first piece of network equipment called the "IMP" (Interface Message Processor). Then at 10: 30 the first message was sent. The first message was sent to Charley S. Kline so he could log into the SRI computer from UCLA. However, this crashed, but the problem was soon fixed later
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because many people use the internet to send or receive messages or emails and to connect with other people. The first message sent on the internet was also the backbone for the advancements made to the internet. This invention also lead to the Ethernet cord, wireless internet, the WWW, and other internet services
The Word Wide Web
Description: The World Wide Web was invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee. Tim Berners-Lee wanted to let thousands of people who owned computers to connect even if they were on the other side of the world, as long as they had access to the internet. Because the internet was invented, HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), and HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) were also invented.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because many people use the internet to search for information and connect with people around the world.
The First Video Game
Description:first video game was invented by A.S. Douglas. Douglas invented Douglas created a similar version of Tic-Tac-Toe using an EDSAC computer, which had a cathode ray tube display. The cathode ray tube display allowed him to create a graphical user interface video game.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because it allowed programming to advance even more and animation as well. it advance animation because Douglas would have had to make image appear on the screen.
Date: Aug. 3, 2005
Description: WiFi, wireless internet, allows people to connect to the internet without having to connect with any cable. WiFi was created by Terence Percival, Diethelm Ostry, John Deane, John O'Sullivan, and Graham Daniels. Percival, Ostry, Deane, and O'Sullivan figured out how to connect people to the internet without any cables by using an antenna that would sent out signals to the computer. Wi-Fi was an instant hit and more than 1 million antennas were being sold per year.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because this allowed the reduction of tangled and messy internet cables lying all over the place. This also allowed advancements in computers and cellular devices to use WiFi as well.
Date: June 29, 2007
Description: The iPhone 1 was made by Apple and released on June 29, 2007. The iPhone 1 was a huge success and sold over five million of them were sold. The iPhone was so successful because it was the first piece of technology that was nothing but touch screen technology. The first appearance of this touch screen technology was in 1966. E.A. Johnson had invented a capacitive touch screen invented. Then in 1971 Doctor Sam Hurst invented a touch sensor. In 1983, Hewlett-Packard released a monitor that detected finger movements. Finally in 2007, Apple released a device that had all of these components (captive touch, touch sensor, and finger movement detection).
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because almost every new piece of technology, including newer computers have touch screens that make technology more user friendly.
The First Glass Phone (Prototype)
Description: A company in Taiwan has released photos and a video of the world's first mobile phone that is made of entirely of glass with only the circut board. However, this is a prototype and does not have and OS, operating system, yet.
Significance: This is significant to the history of computers because computers , phones, and maybe even TV`s in the future may be able to be folded or be holograms. This is the foundation for more technical advancements in the future.