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Effects on Power Systems Market Due to Electric Vehicle Penetration

Presentation for ECE 508
by

Cody Terkhorn

on 4 December 2012

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Transcript of Effects on Power Systems Market Due to Electric Vehicle Penetration

Effects on the Power Systems Market Due to Electric Vehicle Penetration By Adriano Abrantes, Rodrigo Maroja, and Cody Terkhorn Implementation as a Frequency Regulator Q and A References [1]D. Kirschen, G. Strbac, Fundamentals of Power System Economics,” Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2004.
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[4]FERC – Division of Energy Market Oversight, “CAISO Daily Report,” Feb. 2012 [online] {available} http://www.ferc.gov/market-oversight/mkt-electric/california/CAISO-rto-dly-rpt.pdf (Accessed on: Nov. 7 2012)
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[27]Weihao Hu, Zhe Chen, B. Bak-Jensen, "Optimal operation of electric vehicles in competitive electricity markets and its impact on distribution power systems", IEEE Trondheim PowerTech, pages 1-7, June 2011. Introduction Conclusion Implementation as a Interruptible Load Frequency Regulation Effect on the Electric Power Market Implementation for Peak Shaving Power Market Effect Due to Peak Shaving Power Market Effect Due to Interruptible Loads Overview Introduction

Scope and Objectives

Implementations and Effects of Frequency Regulation

Implementations and Effects of Peak Shaving

Implementations and Effects of Interruptible Loads

Conclusion Electricity Hard to Store Introduction As Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) penetrate the vehicle market, energy storage is introduced to the grid as a byproduct. Generation must meet load...
Efficient energy storage changes this. Scope and Objectives We will discuss the implementation and effects of PEV performing the following ancillary services: Introduction PEV can play a role in the ancillary services market and act as Distributed Generation (DG) Frequency Regulation
Peak Shaving
Interruptible Load Frequency regulation is highly feasible due to its low participants requirement, therefore the market can easily be saturated. Thus making this less attractive to PEV owners.
Peak shaving and Interruptible Loads require a large PEV penetration. As this increases, so does the complexity of the system, which brings the need for a more sophisticated control and communication system associated to the V2G interface. Must participate in hourly power market, not tariff
Act as a load during off peak hours and a power injector during on peak hours.
Service will be more attractive to PEV owners that drive less during the day. Household consumption and supply based on remaining vehicle power developed using data from [4] and [14] COST BENEFIT TABLE DEVELOPED USING DATA FROM [4] AND [14] The Power demand curve will exhibit a reduction in the deviation between on and off-peak demand.
High cost on-peak generators will play less of a role due to the increase in PEV generation during on-peak hours.
PEV owners can profit from the electric power market by acting as a distributed generator. 60 Hz! It is all about... Actually, ± 0.1 Hz is still acceptable Implementation as a Frequency Regulator How frequency related blackouts happen? Large load increase, loss of tie lines, loss of generating units Generators synchrony affected, they fall out of the grid More frequency imbalances due to the loss of those generating units PEV batteries can be used to power a household

PEV owners can provide IL service without losing access to electrical power Challenges Implementation as a Frequency Regulator High Discharge Rate, about 6 kW.
Shallow charges and discharges do not degradate the battery pack...that much! IL markets deal with loads bigger than a household

Large number of IL households would be necessary to provide significant services

PEV owners would like to be interrupted during certain times of day Why use PEV for frequency regulation? Why not use PEV? Possibilities Complicated control associated to the operations. Response to large system faults and peak demands

Enabling operator to mitigate transmission losses

PEV owners can maintain access to electrical power during black-outs In terms of market, the results are good, but they are not great. PEV owners Not so attractive for PEV owners.
Saturated market. Profit Peak Demand Spike Compensation


System Fault Compensation


System Loss Reduction Daily Market Price Lowering Market Price

Disconnecting low efficiency generators Interrupting loads may be profitable for retailers during high market prices
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