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The Trail of Tears
Transcript of The Trail of Tears
Focus Question: How did the forced journey on the Trail of Tears affect the Nation as a whole?
both benefit and hurt the nation
Native Americans were greatly hurt
American settlers benefited from the removal
caused racism and hatred towards Native Americans
caused further conflict between American settlers and Native Americans
Effect on Cherokee People and Native Americans
around 4,000 Cherokee people died along the trail of tears from starvation, the cold, and disease
lost ability to speak, read, and write their native languages
forced to leave behind homes, livestock, crops, and places of spiritual significance
lost clan and kin relationships because of all the deaths
Effect on the American Settlers and the US
expanded the US territory
let settlers explore the new land
able to exploit the resources such as corn and tobacco
strengthened the southwestern frontier
enabled Georgia to grow in population, wealth, and power
“Trail of Tears.” World Book. 1st ed. 2012.
The American Journey. Columbus, OH: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., 2009
Wikipedia. 17 Feb. 2014. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 20 Feb. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trail_of_Tears>.
Cherokee Nation. 2014. Cherokee Nation. 20 Feb. 2014. <http://www.cherokee.org/AboutTheNation/History/TrailofTears/ABriefHistoryoftheTrailofTears.aspx.>
Native Americans and the Land. Sep. 2010. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. 23 Feb. 2014 <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indianremovalf.htm>.
Chief John Ross. Letter to “The Senate and House of Representatives”. 28 Sep. 1826.
name comes from Cherokee phrase
"trail where they cried
Native Americans were forced to march 1,000 miles from their homeland in Georgia to Oklahoma
took place from 1835 to 1838
forced off land because white settlers wanted the land to themselves
Leading up to the Trail of Tears
Indian Removal Act:
act that removed all Native Americans in southeastern US
moved them to a territory in Oklahoma
passed in 1830 by Andrew Jackson and his supporters
allowed the Federal government to pay Native Americans to leave their land
gave settlers the opportunity to take land for themselves
After the Trail of Tears
1835: the federal government persuaded a small number (500) Cherokee to sign the Treaty of New Echota
this gave up the Cherokee's land
the signing of the treaty gave Andrew Jackson the legal document needed to remove the Cherokee
even though the Cherokee resisted leaving, they were forced out because they had signed the treaty
led by chief Osceola, Seminole people were able to successfully resist removal
resisted leaving their homeland and went to war with US instead
joined forces with escaped slaves and attacked US
Americans eventually gave up and left Seminole people alone
slavery was going on during this era
people showed racism and hatred towards the African Americans, just like they did to the Cherokees and Native Americans
Americans felt that the Cherokee's were "migratory hunters who only followed the game"
people degraded slaves and thought that they were less than a person
other Native Americans like the Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, Seminoles
General Winfield Scott
Native American tribes forced out of their homelands
marched 1,000 miles to Indian Territory in present day Oklahoma
killed around 4,000 Cherokee
2,000 died in camps waiting to march
2,000 died on the trail from disease, starvation, and the cold
1835: Treaty of New Echota signed by Cherokee
1838: Cherokee forced out of land by General Winfield Scott and troops
1838: Cherokee people begin march towards the west
Cherokees moved from Georgia to Oklahoma
other Native American groups moved from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi to Oklahoma
land east of the Missippi river was poor and bad for farming while land west of Missippi was great for farming
federal government wanted Cherokee's land
settlers wanted land because of rich soil and resources