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Eight Parts of speech

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Courtney Borovec

on 6 February 2015

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Transcript of Eight Parts of speech

Nouns!
A noun is a word that names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
Eight Parts of Speech
Person: Jennifer Matildan (girl)
Place: Washington (state)
Thing: "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" (song)
Idea: Christmas (holiday)
Common Nouns:
Any noun that is not specific or does not name a specific person place or thing.
Proper Nouns :

The name of a specific person, place, idea, or thing. They are capitalized.
Concrete Noun:
Names a thing that can be touched or seen.
Compound Nouns:
A noun made up as two or more words.
Pronouns!
A word used in place of a noun.
I, you, he, she
it, we, they, his
hers, its, me, myself
us, yours, and so on.
Antecedents:
The noun that the pronoun refers to or replaces.
Personal Pronouns:
Takes the place of a specific person (or thing) in a sentence.
Relative Pronouns:
It's both a pronoun and a connecting word. It connects a dependent clause to an independent clause in a complex sentence.
Intensive Pronoun:
Reflexive Pronouns:
Emphasizes, or intensifies, the noun or pronoun it refers to.
Refers back to the subject of a sentence, and it is always an object (never a subject) in a sentence.
Third Person Pronouns:
Used to name the person or thing spoken about.
Verbs!
A word that shows action or links a subject to another word.
Tornadoes
cause
tremendous damage. (action verb)

The weather
is
often calm before a storm. (linking verb)

Action Verbs:
Tells what the subject is doing.
Linking Verbs:
Connects or links a subject to a noun or an adjective in the predicate.
Helping Verbs (Auxiliary Verbs):
Helps the main verb express tense and voice.
Present Tense Verbs:
Expresses action (or state of being) that is happening now or that happens continually or regularly.
Past Tense Verbs:
Expresses action (or a state of being) that is happening now or that happens continually or regularly.
Future Tense Verbs:
Expresses action that will take place.
Future Perfect Tense Verbs:
Expresses action that will begin in the future and will be completed by a specific time in the future, which is formed by adding
will
and
have
to the past particle.
Expresses action that is not completed at the time of stating it. The present continuous tense is formed by adding
am
,
is
, or
are
to the
ing
form of a verb.
Present Continuous Tense Verbs:
Active Or Passive Voice:
Transitive
or Intransitive Verbs:

Some verbs can either be transitive or intransitive.
Gerunds:
Tells you whether the subject is doing the action or is receiving the action.
Ends in
ing
and is used as a noun.
A verb form ending in
ing
or
ed
. A participle is used as an adjective and often begins a participial phrase.
Participles:
Infinitives:
A verb form introduced by
to
. It may be used as a
noun
, an
adjective
, or an
adverb
.
A word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
ancient
dinosaurs

bright
stars

that
triceratops

Articles:
The articles
a
,
an
, and
the
are adjectives.
Proper Adjectives:
Formed from a proper noun, and it is always capitalized.
Common Adjectives:
Any adjective that is not proper. It is not capitalized unless it's the first word of the sentence.
Demonstrative Adjectives:
Points out a particular noun. This and these point out something nearby; that and those point out something at a distance.
Compound Adjectives:
An adjective made up of two or more words.
Indefinite Adjectives:
This gives approximate or indefinite information. It does not tell exactly how many or how much.
Positive Adjective:
Describes a noun or pronoun without comparing it to anyone or anything else.
Comparative
Adjectives:
The comparative form of an adjective (er) compares two persons, places, things, or ideas.
Superlative Adjective:
Compares three or more persons, places, things, or ideas.
Irregular Forms:
Some adjectives use completely different words to express comparison.
Adverbs!
A word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Entirely
Very
Really
Dad snores
loudly
. (
Loudly
modifies the verb
snores
.)
Scarcely
Generally
Adverbs of Time:
Tells
when
,
how often
, and how
long
.
Adverbs of Place:
Tells
where
,
to where
, or
from where
.
Adverbs of Manner:
Often end in
ly
and tell
how
something is done.
Adverbs of Degree:
Tells
how much
or
how little
.
Conjunctive Adverbs:
Used as a conjunction and shows a connection or a transition between two independent clauses. Most often, a conjunctive adverb follows a semicolon in a compound sentence; however, it can also appear at the beginning or end of a sentence.
Positive Adverbs:
Describes but does not make a comparison.
Comparative Adverbs:
Compares two things.
Superlative Adverbs:
Compares three or more things.
Irregular Forms:
Some adverbs use completely different words to express comparison.
Prepositions!
A word that shows position or direction and introduces a prepositional phrase.
around
up

between
over
to
Raul hid
under
the stairs. (Under shows the relationship between
hid
and
stairs
.)
Prepositional Phrases:
Always part of a prepositional phrase. It never appears alone and includes the preposition, the object of the preposition, and the modifiers of the object.
Conjunctions!
A word that connects other words or groups of words.
but
or
so
because
when
Coordinating Conjunctions:
Connects a word to a word, a phrase to a phrase, or a clause to a clause. They must be equal.
Correlative Conjunctions:
Conjunctions used in pairs.
Subordinating Conjunctions:
A word or group of words that connects two clauses that are not equally important. It connects an independent and dependent clause to make a complex sentence.
Interjections!
A word or phrase (set off by commas or an exclamation point) that shows strong emotion.
Stop!
Hey, how are you?
Wow
, would you look at that!
Oh no!
He's falling!
Adjectives!
NOUNS:
Common Nouns:
Woman, museum, book, weekend.
Proper Nouns:
Hillary Clinton, Sunday, Jennifer, Matilda.
Concrete Nouns:
pencil, tree, yogurt
Abstract Nouns:
illness, months, jackets.
Collective Nouns:
family, team, heard, tribe.
Compound Nouns:
football, high school, brother-in-law.
Singular Nouns:
boy, group, stage.
Plural Nouns:
boys, groups, audiences, stages.
Noun Gender:
mother, sister, father, uncle
Subject Noun:

lyrics
of a song,
pages
of a book.
Predicate Nouns:
street
art
Possessive Nouns:

singer's
song,
bride's
dress
Object Nouns:
story, people, country
PRONOUNS:
Antecedents:
they, it
Personal Pronouns:
I, you, he, she, we, they
Relative Pronouns:
who, whose, which, that
Interrogative Pronouns:
who, which, whom, what
Demonstrative Pronouns:
this, that, these, those
Intensive Pronouns:
itself, themselves
Reflexive Pronouns:
itself, myself
Indefinite Pronouns:
everything, someone, anyone
Singular Pronouns:
I, you, he, she, it
Plural Pronouns:
we, you, they
First Person Pronouns:

I
am speaking,
we
are speaking
Second Person Pronouns:
Will
you
do this?
You
should do this.
Third Person Pronouns:
he, she, them, they
Subject Pronouns:
I, she
Object Pronouns:
her, me, you
Possessive Pronouns:
our, its, mine, his
An abstract noun names a thing that you can think about but can't see or touch. They can either be common or proper.
Abstract Nouns:
VERBS:
Collective Nouns:
Action Verbs:
The ball
hit
her.
Names a group or collection of persons, animals, places, or things.
Singular Nouns:
Names one person, place, idea, or thing.
Plural Nouns:
Linking Verbs:
is, are
Names more than one person, place, thing, or idea.
Noun Gender:
Nouns are grouped according to gender:
feminine, masculine, neuter, and indefinite.
Helping Verbs:
has, been, will
Present Tense Verbs:
is, takes
Subject Nouns:
Past Tense Verbs:
was, reached
The subject of a sentence does something
or is talked about in the sentence.
Future Tense Verbs:
will visit, will find
Predicate Nouns:
Present Perfect Tense Verbs:
have wondered, has emitted
Follows the
be
verb (am, is, are, was, were, being) and renames the subject.
Past Perfect Tense Verbs:
had hoped
Possessive Nouns:
Future Perfect Tense Verbs:
will have discovered
Present Continuous Tense Verbs:
are leaning
Shows possession or ownership.
Object Nouns:
Past Continuous Tense Verbs:
were beginning
An object noun when it is used as the direct object, the indirect object, or the object of the preposition.
Future Continuous Tense Verbs:
will be going, are going to be forming
Interrogative Pronouns:
Helps ask a question.
ADJECTIVES:
Articles:
a, an
Demonstrative Pronouns:
Proper Adjectives:
Chicago, Phoenix
Points out or identifies a noun without the name. When used together in a sentence, this and that distinguish one item from another, and these, and those distinguish one group from another.
Indefinite Pronouns:
A pronoun that does not have a specific antecedent (the noun or pronoun it replaces).
Singular and Plural Pronouns:
Pronouns can be either singular or plural in a number.
First Person Pronouns:
Common Adjectives:
Ancient, huge, wooly, ice
Used in place of the name of the speaker or speakers.
Second Person Pronouns:
Demonstrative Adjectives:
this, that
Compound Adjectives:
egg-laying, North American
Indefinite Adjectives:
some
Used to name the person or thing spoken about.
Predicate Adjectives:
abundant, extinct
Positive Adjectives:
fast, impressive
Subject Pronouns:
Used as the subject of a sentence (
I, you, he, she, it, we, they
).
Object Pronouns:
Comparative Adjectives:
faster, more impressive, speedier
Used as the object of a verb or preposition.
Superlative Adjectives:
fastest, most impressive
Possessive Pronouns:
Irregular Forms:
good, better, best
Shows possession or ownership. These possessive pronouns function as adjectives before nouns.
ADVERBS:
Conjunctive Adverbs:
also, besides, however
Positive Adverbs:
late, quickly
Past Tense Verbs:
Expresses action (or a state of being) that is happening now or that happens continually or regularly.
Comparative Adverbs:
later, more quickly
Present Tense Verbs:
Expresses action that will take place.
Superlative Adverbs:
latest, least quickly
Irregular Forms:
Positive- well, badly. Comparative- better, worse. Superlative- best, worst.
Adverbs of Time
: rarely
Present Perfect Tense Verbs:
Adverbs of Place:
here
Expresses action that began in the past but continues or is completed in the present, formed by adding
has
or
have
to the past particle.
Adverbs of Manner:
boldly
Past Perfect Tense Verbs:
Adverbs of Degree:
usually
Expresses action that began in the past and was completed in the past. This tense is formed by adding
had
to the past particle.
Past Continuous Tense Verbs:
Expresses action that was happening at a certain time in the past.
Future Continuous Tense Verbs:
Expresses action that will take place at a certain time in the future. This tense is formed by adding
will
be to the
ing
form of the main verb.
Singular and Plural Verbs:
A singular subject needs a singular verb and a plural subject needs a plural verb.
Transitive Verbs:
A transitive verb is a verb that transfers its action to a direct object.
PREPOSITIONS:
Intransitive Verbs:
Prepositional Phrases:
in the clothes hamper, with all the winter coats, around the house, before
An intransitive verb does not need an object to complete its meaning.
CONJUNCTIONS:
Coordinating Conjunctions:
and, or, but
Correlative Conjunctions:
not only, but also, either, or
Subordinating Conjunctions:
because, since
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