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Disability in the Philippines

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Felicia Salinas

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of Disability in the Philippines

Cross Disability self-help grassroots organization

60 community based centers called “Stimulation and Therapeutic Activity”

As of 2008, these centers have provided rehabilitation and pre-school training to more than 7,000 children with disabilities Magna Carta for Disabled Persons Rights Based Model Disability Policy in the Philippines

By Joelle Barreau, Dipabali Chowdhury, Felicia Salinas, and Lauren Schwarzenholzer Republic Act No. 7277 "An act providing for the rehabilitation, self-development and self-reliance of disabled persons and their integration into the mainstream of society and for other purposes" "Disabled persons are part of Philippines society" (R.A. 7277 §2(a))

"Disabled persons have the same rights as other people to take their proper place in society. They should be able to live freely and as independently as possible. This must be the concern of everyone- the family, community, and all government and nongovernment organizations. Disabled persons' rights must never be perceived as welfare service by the Government" (R.A. 7277 §2(b)). Also a Social Model of Disability "To facilitate integration...into the mainstream of society...shall advocate for and encourage respect for disabled persons...State shall exert all efforts to remove all social, cultural, economic, environmental and attitudinal barriers that are prejudicial to disabled persons."

(R.A. 7277 §2(e)) Definition of Disability Disability shall mean:
(1) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more psychological, physiological or anatomical function of an individual or activities of such individual;
(2) a record of such an impairment
(3) Being regarding as having such an impairment R.A. 7277 §4(c) Rights and Privileges of Disabled Persons: Employment Equal Opportunity for Employment (R.A. 7277 1§5)

Sheltered Employment (R.A. 7277 1§6)

Apprenticeship (R.A. 7277 1§7)

Incentives for Employers (R.A. 7277 1§8)
Employing disabled persons:
Additional deduction from their gross income equivalent to 25% of the total amount paid as salaries and wages to disabled persons
Improve or modify facilities:
Additional deduction from their net taxable income equivalent to 50% of the direct costs of the improvements or modifications Education Access to Quality Education (R.A. 7277 2§(12)

Assistance to disabled Students (R.A. 7277 2§(13)

Special Education (R.A. 7277 2§(14))

State Universities and Colleges (R.A. 7277 2§(17)) Chapter III Health National Health Program. The Department of Health in coordination with the National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons, shall institute a national health program which shall aim to attain the following:

Prevention of disability, whether occurring prenatally or postnatally;
Recognition and early diagnosis of disability; and
Early rehabilitation of the disabled Chapter IV: Auxiliary Social Services (R.A. 7277)

Chapter V: Telecommunications (R.A. 7277)

Chapter VI: Accessibility (R.A. 7277)
Barrier Free Environment (R.A. 7277 6§(25))

Chapter VII: Political and Civil Rights (R.A. 7277)
System of voting (§29)
Right to assemble (§30)
Right to organize (§31) Title III Prohibition on Discrimination Against Disabled Persons
Chapter I: Discrimination on Employment "Discrimination on Employment.- No entity, whether public or private, shall discriminate against a qualified person by reason of disability in regard to job application procedures, the hiring, promotion, or discharge of employees, employee compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment."

(R.A. 7277 3.1§(32)) Chapter II: Discrimination on Transportation
(R.A. 7277)

Chapter III: Discrimination on the Use of Public Accommodations and Services Enforcement (R.A. 7277) 1899
Inauguration of
Philippine Republic
Spanish American War TIMELINE 1521
Ferdinand Magellan
explores the Philippines Spanish Colonization 1542
Spanish military
claims Philippines 1901
Fall of Republic American Occupation 1935
Government 1941
Japan invades WAR ENDS 1945 1964
U.S Recognizes Philippines Independence Independent-Third Republic 1972
Martial Law
is established 1996
Gorilla War 1992
Angat Pinoy-Medium Term Development Plan 2000
National Disability
Prevention and Rehabilitation Awareness Week An archipelago of 7,107 islands
Population: 88.57m (August 2007 census)
Demographics: are mainly made up of several Asian ethnic groups
90% Christian, 80% Roman Catholic
Languages: Filipino (Tagalog), English and Spanish; many local dialects Basic Data Independent Fifth Republic The Philippines is a pluralist democracy

An executive presidency
A bicameral Congress
Senate (24 members
House of Representatives (239)
Supreme Court Government Structure Constitutional Laws "…The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. Until then, they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot.” (Philippines 1987, art. 5, sect. 2 via "The LawPhil Project") Suffrage •“[T]he State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children. The State shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers.” (Philippines 1987, art. 13, sect. 11 via "The LawPhil Project")
•“[T]he State shall establish a special agency for disabled persons for rehabilitation, self-development and self-reliance, and their integration into the mainstream of society.” (Philippines 1987, art. 13, sect. 13 via "The LawPhil Project") Social Justice and Human Rights "Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills.” (Philippines 1987, art. 14, sect. 2 via "The LawPhil Project") Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports
(2) …For three consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution, one-half of the seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled, as provided by law, by selection or election from the labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural communities, women, youth, and such other sectors as may be provided by law, except the religious sector.” (Philippines 1987, art 6, sect. 2 via "The LawPhil Project") The Legislative Department “If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall become President.” (Philippines 1987, art. 7, sect. 7 via "The LawPhil Project") Executive Department, Problematic? Interview with a Filipino GRASSROOTS INITIATIVES National non-profit that promotes and protects the rights and welfare of PwD toward economic independence and active participation in social, political and civil areas.

Collaboration with Dept. of Ed to make schools more accessible for children with disabilities PhilCOHED (Philippine Council of Cheshire Homes for the Disabled) 1. Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities
2. Inclusive Youth Development and Empowerment
3. Economic Empowerment
4. Support for Everyday Living
5. Advocacy and Campaigning
6. Internship Programs
7. Networking/Collaboration CORE PROGRAMS OF PhilCOHED
("Cheshire Services in the Philippines.") ("Wheelchair and Disabled Foundation of the Philippines," 2008) Cheshire Home for physically handicapped students
Specialized dorm with accessibility
First of its kind in the country Bahay Biyaya Student Hostel Established in 1975 to provide direct welfare and auxiliary services to persons with an orthopedic disability

Today, all the members of the WDFP board are composed of persons with orthopedic disability

Developed a STEERS program geared to social integration of PWDs

Spiritual Enrichment
Travel and Tourism
Education through scholarship and
Employment through skills training
Research and Publication
Sports and Recreation WHEELCHAIR AND DISABLED FOUNDATION Spiritual Enrichment
Spirituality can serve as a positive factor towards mainstreaming
Travel and Tourism
Mainstreaming is a dynamic process, suggests mobility
WDFP help tourists who are disabled travel to Manila STEERS PROGRAM ("Wheelchair and Disabled Foundation of the Philippines," 2008) Education through scholarship
Provides grants and aid to students with physical impairments taking vocational courses

Employment through skills training
Referral System
Directory of Persons with Orthopedic Disability
Strategic partnership with Personnel
Management Association of the Philippines for job placement STEERS PROGRAM Research and Publication
Publication of WDFP Newsletter and the Handicaps
Sports and Recreation
Sponsors recreational activities for PWDs
Sports Program STEERS PROGRAM (cont.) Nonprofit dedicated to persons with orthopedic disabilities

5 workshops, 6 dormitories for trainees

Largest rehabilitation workshop for people with disabilities in the Philippines

Currently, 350 workers with a disability at TWH are doing a wide variety of activities from metal crafting to accountancy and marketing Tahanang Walang Hagdanan (TWH) Weaknesses Katipunan ng Maykapansanan sa Phillipines, Inc. (KAMPI) Launched April 18, 2012
3 year disability inclusive elections program aiming to increase the participation of people with disabilities in elections
Commissioner Rene Sarmiento, a key player in empowering persons with disabilities in the NGOs said there needs to be:
accessible poll stations
ballots printed in Braille
sign language interpreters FULLY ABLED NATION Example: A man with a disability was prevented from boarding a plane because the commissioner could not communicate with him Discrimination is Still Prevalent People with disabilities in the Philippines claim that the government fails to enforce the law that affords them a 20% discount on medicine (as seen in the urban and rural studies)

Magna Carta Sect. 8: Business that improves facilities get 50% of direct costs
Accessibility is still a problem – 1/3 of the country’s churches are wheelchair accessible

Magna Carta Ch. 5 Sect. 22-24: Accessibility to telecommunications are “encouraged”
Television programs are not accessible to the deaf Continued Struggle for Inclusion M.C. Ch. 7 Political and Civil Rights: PwD may receive assistance in voting
Accessibility is still an issue: NGO’s advocate for
Accessible poll stations
Ballots printed in Braille
Sign language interpreters Struggles and Weaknesses Cont. Legislation Strengths Adopted the rights/social model

PWDs are guaranteed the right to participate in national and local elections

PWDs can have a representative in the House of Rep., Congress of the Philippines

There are provisions mandating the State to establish a special agency

Legislation addresses all aspects of the disability policy framework, in addition it creates equality of treatment in health Addressing Disability inequality is a priority to the Philippines government, as the he National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons (NCWDP), was transferred from the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to the Office of the President (OP) Developments in the Way Disability Statistics are Collected Discrepancy between the 2000 Philippines census data (1.2%) and the UNESCAP data (10%) (Reyes et al., 2011, p. 2)

Past censuses have used questions such as:
"Does _____ have any physical or mental disability?" (Ibid.)
What type of disability does _____ have? (Ibid.)

The questions asked in the 2010 Census (which data has not been released) have become more elaborate yet simple (Ibid.)
"Do you have difficulty seeing, even if wearing glasses?" (Ibid.)
Do you have difficulty hearing, even if using a hearing aid?" (Bid.)

Reflects advances in the conceptualization of disability and use of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a conceptual framework (Ibid.)

Will greatly benefit future works on disability SUGGESTIONS "Persons with disabilities in our judicial system are also given equal rights with others under our existing legislation. However, what hinders them to avail of justice in a speedy disposition is the limited support mechanism in our judicial system to pauper litigants." ("Economic and Social Commission, 2009, p. 13) Suggestions (cont.) Harmonizing National and Domestic Laws with the CRPD ("Economics and Social Commission," 2009, pg. 7)

More Advocacy
Especially to make people aware of what protections there are and what programs they are eligible for

Eliminate barriers to participate in social life
-investing in infrastructure

Changing the language in the Constitution and other domestic legislation

Centralize disability policy and implementation Urban Study Rural Study Sec. 44. Enforcement by the Secretary of Justice
(a) Denial of Right
(1) Duty to Investigate
(b) Potential Violations- If the Secretary of Justice has reasonable cause to belive that:
(1) any person or group of persons is engaged in a patter or practice of discrimination under this Act; or
(2) any person or group or persons has been discriminated against under this Act and such discrimination raises an issue of general public importance, the Secretary of Justice may commence a legal action in any appropriate court
Sec. 45. Authority of Court.– The Court may grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including, to the extent required by this Act:
(a) granting temporary, preliminary or permanent relief;
(b) providing an auxiliary aid or service, modification of policy, practice or procedure, or alternative method; and
(c) making facilities readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities
Sec. 46. Penal Clause.–
(a) Any person who violates any provision of this Act shall suffer the following penalties
(1) for the first violation, a fine of not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) but no exceeding one hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) or imprisonment of not less than six (6) months but not more than two (2) years, or both at the discretion of the court
(2) for any subsequent violation, a fine of not less than one hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) but not exceeding town hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00) or imprisonment for not less than two (2) years but not more than six (6) years, or both at the discretion of the court.
(b) Any person who abuses the privileges granted herein shall be punished with imprisonment of not less than six (6) months or a fine of not less than five thousand pesos (P5,000.00), but not more than fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00), or both, at the direction of the court.
(c) If the violator is a corporation, organization or any similar entity, the officials thereof directly involved shall be liable therefor.
(d) If the violator is an alien or a foreigner, he shall be deported immediately after service of sentence without further deportation proceedings Sec. 32. Persons with disability shall be entitled to:
At least 20% discount from all establishments relative to the utilization of all services in hotels and similar lodging establishments; restaurants and recreation centers for the exclusive use or enjoyment of persons with disability
A minimum 20% discount on admission fees charged by theaters, cinema houses, concert halls, circuses, carnivals and other similar places of culture, leisure and amusement for the exclusive use of enjoyment of persons with disability
At least 20% discount for the purchase of medicines in all drugstores for the exclusive use or enjoyment of persons with disability
At least 20% discount on medical and dental services
Title Four: Prohibitions on Verbal, Non-verbal Ridicule and Vilification Against Persons with Disability
Sec. 39. Public Ridicule- For purposes of this chapter, public ridicule shall be defined as an act of making fun or contemptuous imitating or making mockery of persons with disability whether in writing, or in words, or in action due to their impairment(s)
Sec. 40. No individual, group or community shall execute any of these acts of ridicule against persons with disability in any time and place which could intimidate or result in loss of self-esteem of the latter.
Sec. 41. Vilification- For purposes of this Chapter vilification shall be defined as: (a) utterance of slanderous and abusive statements against a person with disability; and/or (b) an activity in public which incites hatred towards, serious contempt for, or sever ridicule of persons with disability.”
Sec. 42. Any individual, group or community is hereby prohibited from vilifying any person with disability which could result into loss of self-esteem of the latter.
SEC. 4. The title of Republic Act No. 7277 is hereby amended to read as the “Magna Carta for Persons with Disability”, and all references on the said law to “Disabled persons” shall likewise be amended to read as “persons with disability” Amendments Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSDW) vocational rehabilitation training, counseling, other social services
Department of Education (DepEd) special education in the elementary and high school level
Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) accessible transportation
Department of Works and Public Highways (DPWH) & Building Officials in the Local Government Units (LCU’s) accessibility in roads, buildings, parks, other establishments for public use
Commission on Higher Education (CHED) accessibility in universities and colleges
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) vocational training and suitable employment
National Council on Disability Affairs (NCDA) coordinates all the programs for persons with disabilities in all of the aforementioned national government agencies Who’s Responsible? Other Laws United Nations Conventions on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD)
Biwako Millennium Framework
Biwako Plus Five
Manila Accessible Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Design Recommendations
Manila Declaration on Accessible
Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
United Nations Millennium Development Goals (UN MDG) International Responsibilities Efficacy Measurement Questions THANK YOU References Persons with Disability (PWDs) in Rural Philippines: Results from the 2010 Field Survey in Rosario, Batangas
(Reyes et. al, 2011) Studies that examine the conditions of PWDs are very limited, and statistics are rare
(Reyes et al, 2011, p. 1)

-Weakness in government structure People with Disabilities Data Where? Municipality of Rosaro (p. 3)
What? Effort to complement the previous study. Gathered information on basic characteristics of the PWD and their households, the PWD's employment status, policy awareness, daily life activities, time usage, and types of impairment, among others. (Ibid.)
Problems? Some upland areas were difficult to reach during the rainy season while some areas did not have roads! (accessibility?!) (Ibid.)
PWDs in Rosario have very low educational attainment (p. 15)
58% of respondents attained only up to the fifth grade in elementary (Ibid.)
19% have completed high school (compared to 54% in urban areas) (Ibid.)
Visually impaired have the lowest rate amongst groups surveyed (mobility impaired, visually impaired, hearing impaired, and multiple impairments) (Ibid.)
For those who do not go to school at all the most common reasons for not going were their disability and family's financial problems. Others reported that there was no special education schools nearby. (p. 17)
Most common reasons for not finishing schooling was poverty (p. 18)
Asset Ownership
Almost all PWD households owned a house and a television set (p. 18)
74% had a telephone/cellular device (Ibid.)
Outperformed those in urban areas in terms of house ownership (Ibid.)
Almost all PWD respondents live in dwellings they or their families own (p. 20)
Considerable gaps between the conditions of PWDs and their immediate siblings especially in terms of education and employment (p. 28)
PWDs who have graduated from high school are usually self-employed while their siblings with about the same educational attainment were/are employed in public firms/public sector
1/3 of respondents have family members, relatives, and friends who live abroad and remit money to them or their households (Ibid.)
This is a crucial form of income in the Philippines Employment
Employment rate among the PWD in Rosario is slightly lower than Metro Manila (Reyes et al., 2011, p. 31)
47% are employed
91.3% of them have an income-generating job/business; 8.7% are working without pay for a household business (Ibid.)
50% are underemployed (Ibid.)
34.7% are considered not part of the labor force (Ibid.) (Reyes et al., 2011, p. 32) Leading Occupations for PWDs
Farmers/farm workers: 21.7%
Construction workers: 6.5%
Housekeeper/helper: 6.5%
Unpaid family workers: 8.7%
Store keepers/managers: 4.3%
Artists/musicians: 4.3%
Launderers: 4.3%
Haircutters/pedicurists: 4.3%
Stick makers: 4.3%
(Reyes et al., 2011, p. 34) Agricultural & Unskilled Personal income is highest among the mobility-impaired and lowest among those with multiple impairments
(Reyes et al., 2011, p. 57) To determine whether household income was sufficient to meet basic food and non-food needs, annual per capita income of households were compared with the official food and poverty thresholds released by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) (p. 61). It was found that 61.3% of households are considered income poor and 54.7% are food poor. The poverty rate for PWDs should be higher if extra costs associated with having disabilities were considered. Because of extra costs, the poverty thresholds for PWDs are higher than the non-PWDs (p. 62).
No estimates of these extra costs, thus the real poverty rate among PWDs could NOT be estimated Policy Awareness (Reyes et al., 2011, p. 84) (Reyes et al., 2011, p. 85) Low Awareness on policies and programs Low participation among PWDs in various programs ("International Treatises and Commitment") ("Disability Laws") ("Republic Act 7277") ("Republic Act 9442") ("Economic and Social Commission," 2009, pp. 6-7) ("Defy Normal," 2010) 15th Congress House of Representatives: Congress of the Philippines. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.congress.gov.ph/orphi-l/index.php?filt=filt_sector&alpha=D&sector=sectora

Albert, Jose Ramon, Celia Reyes, Aubrey Tabuga and Josef Yap (2011). Preliminary Results of the Survey on Persons with Disabilities Conducted in Selected Metro Manila Cities. (Research Report). Philippines Institute for Development Studies.

“Cheshire Services in the Philippines.” (n.d). Leonard Cheshire Disability International. Web. 17 Nov. 2012 <http://www.lcint.org/?lid=3479q>.

Country Profile on Disability: The Republic of the Philippines. (2002, March).
Japan International Cooperation Agency Planning and Evaluation Department.

Defy Normal [Video file]. (2010, January 20). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9267EKu595cSponsored by the National Council on Disability Affairs.

Disability at a Glance 2010: A Profile at 36 Countries and Areas in Asia and the Pacific. (2010). Retrieved October 14, 2012 from http://www.unescap.org/publications/detail.asp?id=1407

Disability at a Glance 2012: Strengthening the evidence base in Asia and the Pacific. (2012). Retrieved November 17, 2012 from http://www.unescap.org/publications/detail.asp?id=1521

“Disability Inclusive Elections Campaign Launched in Philippines.” Global Accessibility News. 24 April, 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012 < http://globalaccessibilitynews.com/2012/04/24/disability-inclusive-elections-campaign-launched-in-philippines-%E2%80%8F/>.

Disability Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: Expert Group Meeting on the Harmonization of National Legislations with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific (Report) (M. A. Lee, Jr, Comp.). (2009, June).

Economist Intelligence Unit. (2008). Country Profile 2008: Philippines. Retrieve from: http://portal.eiu.com/index.asp?la-yout=displayIssue&publication_id=1950000795

Fully Abled Nation AVP (Tagalog version with English Sign Language Inset) [Videofile]. (n.d.). Retrieved from

International Treatises and Commitments. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/international-conventions-and-commitments/

Jandayan, M., Figueroa, R. S., Canales, D. (2009, February). Monitoring the Human Rights of Persons with Disability: Preliminary Report Philippines. Retrieved from http://drpi.research.yorku.ca/sites/default/files/files/PhilippinesPrelimRep.pdf

Lortere, Marion. “Albay to launch program for PWDs in 2013 elections.” Philippine Information Agency. 15 May 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2012 <http://www.pia.gov.ph/news/index.php?article=771336979580>.

Mateo, L. A. (2009, June 3). Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific office of the United Nations high commissioner for human rights. Retrieved from http://www.unescap.org/sdd/issues/disability/crpd/crpd.asp

Mateo, L. A. (n.d) Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.unescap.org/sdd/issues/-disability/crpd/crpd.asp

“Philippines: Government Failure to Protect Rights Biggest Challenge for Disabled People.” The International Disability and Human Rights Network. 22 July 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2012 <http://www.daa.org.uk/index.php?mact=Blogs,cntnt01,showentry,0&cntnt01entryid=215&cntnt01returnid=98>.

Republic Act 5250. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-5250/

Republic Act 4564. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-4564/

Republic Act 9442. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-9442/

Republic Act 9433. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-9433/

Republic Act 1179. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-1179/

Republic Act 1373. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-1373/

Republic Act 7277. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-7277/

Republic Act 6759. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-6759/

Republic Act 10070. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-no-10070/

Republic Act 3562. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Council on Disability Affairs website: http://www.ncda.gov.ph/disability-laws/republic-acts/republic-act-3562/

Reyes, C. M., Tabuga, A. D., Mina, C. D., Asis, R. D., & Datu, M. B. G. (2011, March). Discussion Paper Series: Vol. 2011-06. Persons with Disability (PWD) in Rural Philippines: Results from the 2010 Field Survey in Rosario, Batangas (Research Report). Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

The International Disability and Human Rights Network. DDA. Retrieved November 12th, 2012 http://www.daa.org.uk/index.php?mact=Blogs,cntnt01,showentry,0&cntnt01entryid=215&cntnt01returnid=98

The LawPhil Project. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.lawphil.net/consti/cons-1987.html

Timeline: Philippines History. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2012, from
infoplease website: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/philippinestime1.html

Wheelchair and Disabled Foundation of the Philippines (2008). Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.mccidonline.net/wdfp/index.htm

Yuen, A. (2012, November 14). [Personal interview by F. Salinas]. National Statistics Office (NSO)- Population Data
Department of Health- Registers
Department of Social Welfare and Development- Nation Household Mapping Survey
Philippine Institute for Development Studies National and Domestic laws are not in harmony with the CRPD (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability)
National Human Rights Action Plan and Program Committee (NHRAPP)

Presidential Decree No. 442: "The labor Code of the Philippines categorized handicap workers as special workers and therefore they shall be paid at least 75 percent of the minimum wage”. Explicitly Mentioned
•Article 5: Suffrage
•Article 13: Social Justice and Human Rights
•Article 14: Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports Implicitly Mentioned
Article 6: The legislation Department ("Disability at a Glance," 2012) PWD Sectoral Representatives
1. Estelita G. Juco, first sectoral representative in Congress and Public Relations guru.

2. Arturo A. Borjal, a sectoral representative, co-authors of the Republic Act 7277 Percentage of PWD: (10%) (Reyes et al., 2011, p. 2) Annual disability spending: 29.8 million ("Economic Intelligence Unit," 2008) interchangeably use the English words "handicap", "disabled person" and "people with disability". (Mateo, 2009) Inconsistencies within the framework Access to Justice for PWD Large % of PWD are poor and can hardly meet daily subsistence (esp. in rural areas) (Ibid.)
Find it difficult to go to court because of transportation barriers and lack of financial resources to spend for fares (Ibid.)
Especially for PWD living in rural areas because most courts are situated in urban areas (Ibid.)
Most courts do not have accessible facilities despite Philippine Supreme Court Circular No. 46-95 requiring judges to "take the proper measures to fully realize the policy set forth in the Accessibility Law or the B.P. 344 with the view of providing disabled persons convenient access to courtrooms holding sessions, if absolutely necessary, on the ground floor of court houses" ("Economic and Social Commission," 2009, p. 13). Need:
Lawyers who are willing to represent PWDs (similar to the right to an attorney in the US)
Transportation to courts
Increased accessibility efforts Only one case since 1992 has reached the Supreme Court. It dealt with a violation of the Magna Carta but not on grounds pertaining to discrimination in employment. Rather it was on the grounds of illegal dismissal and payment of appropriate wage.
"Marites Bernardo et al. vs. National Labor Relations Commission and Far East Bank and Trust Company-G.r. No. 122917, July 12, 1999).

("Economic and Social Commission", 2009, p. 8) R.A. 7277 (Lortere, 2012) ("Economic Intelligence Unit," 2008) ("Economic Intelligence Unit," 2008) (“Cheshire Services in the Philippines," 2012.) ("The LawPhil Project") (“Wheelchair and Disabled Foundation of the Philippines," 2008.) Where?: Metro Manila Cities
What?: Gathered information on basic characteristics of the PWD and their households, the PWD's employment status, policy awareness, daily life activities, time usage, and types of impairment, among others.
Policy Awareness Respondents from Makati City are more educated than respondents from other areas. (Albert et al., 2011 p. 51) Varies by Area Education in Urban Philippines Respondents with mobility and visual impairments have a higher % of respondents who have obtained college education. (Albert et al., 2011 p. 52) Varies by Impairment (Albert et al., 2011 p. 52) Most PWD’s are self-employed Employment in Urban Philippines Many also go into: umbrella repair, water delivery, electronic repair, water delivery (Albert et al., 2011 p. 117) Type of businesses PWDs enter into: NGOs
Only 15% reported that NGOs help them (Reyes et al., 2011 p. 133)
Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR)
92% reported that CBR’s are almost non-existent in barangays (Albert et al., 2011 p. 133)
No Knowledge of the barangay programs because of no implementation
Magna Carta
68% of the respondents are not familiar with the Magna Carta
79% did not know of the amendments to the Magna Carta that gave more privileges for the PWDs
60% of the are not aware that PWDs can get 20% discount from all establishments (Albert et al., 2011 p. 136) Policy Awareness Awareness of sale discounts: No implementation
Poor awareness
Low Participation in NGOs and other programs Overall Efficacy In Urban Areas ("Timeline Philippines History") ("Country Profile on Disability," 2002) ("Disability Laws") ("Cheshire Services in the Philippines.") ("Wheelchair and Disabled Foundation of the Philippines," 2008) ("Wheelchair and Disabled Foundation of the Philippines," 2008) (Albert et al., 2011) (Albert et al., 2011) ("Economic and Social Commission," 2009) ("Economic and Social Commission," 2009) ("Economic and Social Commission," 2009) ("Disability Laws") ("Yuen," 2012) ("The International Disability") ("The International Disability") ("Fully Abled Nation") Learning Objectives Understand disability policy in the Philippines

Be able to identify the following:

Be familiar with the grassroots initiatives

Ideas on how to improve policy
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