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Interlock protection Generator

By Monatser Almansi for TTU grad. project
by

montaser mansi

on 11 May 2013

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Transcript of Interlock protection Generator

Like other internal combustion engines, a gas turbine cannot produce torque at zero speed.
The starting mean system is used to start the gas turbine rolling, crank it to firing speed and assist the fired turbine to self-sustaining speed.
This is accomplished by an induction motor starting device operating through a torque converter coupled to the accessory gear.
This arrangement provides the cranking torque for turbine start-up. For shutdown, this continues to rotate the turbine rotor at slow speed for cool down purposes. Starting Gas Turbine
SRV: Speed Ratio Valve.
GCV: Gas Control Valve.
GSV: Gas Splitter Valve.
P: Primary.
S: Secondary.
GTV: Gas Transfer Valve. The advantage of filtration system to guarantee high availability and efficiency of gas turbine GT.
Contaminants entries the GT can cause corrosion, fouling, erosion and melting of particles on hot surfaces of gas path parts like combustion liners, nozzle partitions and turbine buckets.
And turbine damage because increased stresses by reduction in the cross sectional area of compressor blade.
Experience in some environments has demonstrated that 1% reduction in axial compressor for efficiency can account for a 2.3% decrease in the GT output for a given power output and increase in fuel consumption of 1.5%, depending on GT type. Gas Turbine Filtration System The gas control valve provides the final precise metering of fuel gas flow to the combustors. The inlet pressure to the gas control valve is regulated by the ratio function of the stop/ratio valve described hereafter.
The ratio function of the stop/ratio valve provides a regulated inlet pressure for the control valve. The stop function of the valve serves to provide a tight shut-off of the fuel gas flow when required. Positioning of both stop/ratio valve and control valve is hydraulically operated and based on signals from the control system. Fuel Control
Filtration mechanism is electrostatic charge, which attracts particles charged fiber for particles by natural electrostatic force (Van Der Waals) , the electrostatic charge is applied to the filter media during the manufacturing process. Combustion is initiated by means of the discharge from two high voltage electrode spark plugs. At the time of firing, one or both sparks of these plugs ignite a chamber. The remaining chambers are ignited by crossfire through the tubes that interconnect the reaction zones of the remaining chambers. Combustion System Description of Gas Turbine GAS TURBINE DLN operating modes 1124 543 9 11.4 Firing Temp °C Exhaust Temp °C Exhaust Pressure bar Fuel
Consumption
Kg/sec The most important part in SCADA system in our project:

Data

Electrical and mechanical variables on/off states
Analogue quantities
Digital quantities
Change of state sequence of event
Time of occurrence and several other data which the control room operator would like to know.  FUNCTION OF SCADA SYSTEMS

Monitoring
Alarm
Control and indication production automatic generation control (AGC)
Data logging
Data acquisition

REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT (RTU):

Remote Terminal Units special computers which contain analog to digital converters (ADC), digital to analog converters (DAC), digital inputs (status) and outputs (control).
The inputs and outputs are fully protected against spurious electrical transients. Security constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF):

This function has a relation with a contingency analysis by combined results in the contingency analysis with optimal power flow (OPF).

And we have a four states of power system in this function:

Optimal dispatch
In this state the economic dispatch is optimal operation, but may not be secure.

Optimal dispatch post contingency
At this state the contingency has occurred and a security violation may have occurred.

Secure dispatch
This state we have not contingency outages and we taking the security violations into account, but we correct the dispatch parameters.

Secure dispatch post contingency
In this state we fined when the contingency occurs at the base operating conditions, the security violation is response and with conditions correction. System monitoring:

The work of this function as following points:
Provides up to date information.
Telemetry systems: critical quantities are measured and transmitted to central location.
The measured quantities such as voltage ,current ,line flow, frequency , circuit breaker status ,etc. these data is very large data and difficult for human operators to process, in this case we use the digital computers system centers to work this difficult job such as following :
Gathers telemetered data.
Process this data.
Stores the data in a data base.
Generate alarms.
Operator can display this data.
Combines data with system models. Processing and Logging Data

The data loggers perform the following function:

Input scanning
A/D conversion
Display
Signal amplification
Recording
Programming
 
In our project we connected the PLC circuit with SCADA system as shown figures in Appendix (B). What is SCADA?

SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

SCADA system includes a computer system with an application program running that acquires the real-time data from the data acquisition units located in the field at a remote location in order the monitor the devices remotely and control them.

SCADA equipment are located in:

Master control center (national grid control center)
Zonal (regional) control centers
District control center (state electricity board)
Control rooms of generating stations and large sub-station. SCADA – Why do we need it?

• If we did not have SCADA, we would have very inefficient use of human
resources and this would cost us (Rs,Rs,Rs)

• In today’s restructured environment SCADA is critical in handling the volume of data needed in a timely fashion

• Service restoration would involve travel time and would be significantly higher

• It is essential to maintain reliability SCADA Contingency analysis procedures Contingency analysis:

The power system problems due to events such as generator outages can cause serious damage within very short duration.

The contingency analysis depends on normal programs as a following:-

Model the events before they occur.
Combined with standard analysis procedures to study the system.
Generate operator alarms.

And we have advantages of this analysis such as:
Fast solution methods.
Automatic contingency selection.




The major functions of system security:
System monitoring.
Contingency analysis.
Security constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF).
The power system needs to be operationally secure, i.e. with minimal probability of blackout and equipment damage. An important component of power system security is the system’s ability to with stand the effects of contingencies.

A Contingency is basically an outage of generator, transformer, and or line, and its effects are monitored with specified security limits.

In the power system security analysis, thousands of outages may have studied before they occur, and security analysis procedures run at an energy control center must be very fast. Power system security States of the power system Disturbance action Control action The base impedance based on the relay secondary quantities is given by Equation:

ZB relay = VLN relay / I relay
ZB relay = 17.14 Ω

The worst-case current (relay secondary quantities) during inadvertent energizing is given by Equation:

I worst case = VLN relay /( X 2 + XTG + XminSG1 ) ZB relay
I worst case = 11.091 A Generator protection setting criteria :

*Calculations for setting protection functions:

The base voltages for the relay (or generator VT secondary) are:

VLL relay = VT primary voltage / VT ratio
VLL relay = 100V
VLN relay = 57.74 V

The generator CT primary line base current is 5389 A. Thus, the base current for the relay (or CT secondary) is given by:

I relay = CT primary current / CT ratio
I relay = 3.368 A The electrical protection functions

• The electrical generator’s characteristics :
140MVA , 15KV, armature current 5389A , 0.85 PF Lagging
2 poles , 3 phase , Y connection , 50 Hz , Speed 3000 RPM,
insulation Class F and air-cooled generator.

• Generator parameters Measurement :
CTs turns ratio 8000/5A.
VTs turns ratio 150000/100V. Types of protection in general

Typical electrical protection relays include those that monitor
parameters such as voltage , current , impedance , frequency,
power and power direction or a ratio of any of the above.

Typical mechanical protection relays include those that monitor parameters such as speed, temperature, pressure and flow among others. CHAPTER THREE

PROTECTION FUNCTIONS The mechanical protection functions

1- Over-speed protection:
Over-speed protection consists of three magnetic pick-ups which provide electrical pulses to the Controllers which compare the pulse rate to a pre-set level.

2- Over-temperature protection:
The over temperature system protects the gas turbine against possible damage caused by over firing. It is a back-up system which operates only after failure of the speed and temperature override loops. *Protection function:
1-Inadvertent Energizing Protection 50/27:



2-under voltage Protection 27:



3-Overcurrent Protection 50/51:



4-Overvoltage Protection 59: The base impedance based on the relay secondary quantities is given by Equation:

ZB relay = VLN relay / I relay
ZB relay = 17.14 Ω

The worst-case current (relay secondary quantities) during inadvertent energizing is given by Equation:

I worst case = VLN relay /( X 2 + XTG + XminSG1 ) ZB relay
I worst case = 11.091 A Generator protection setting criteria :

*Calculations for setting protection functions:

The base voltages for the relay (or generator VT secondary) are:

VLL relay = VT primary voltage / VT ratio
VLL relay = 100V
VLN relay = 57.74 V

The generator CT primary line base current is 5389 A.

Thus, the base current for the relay (or CT secondary) is given by:

I relay = CT primary current / CT ratio
I relay = 3.368 A The electrical protection functions

• The electrical generator’s characteristics :
140MVA , 15KV, armature current 5389A , 0.85 PF Lagging
2 poles , 3 phase , Y connection , 50 Hz , Speed 3000 RPM,
insulation Class F and air-cooled generator.

• Generator parameters Measurement :
CTs turns ratio 8000/5A.
VTs turns ratio 15000/100V. Types of protection in general

Typical electrical protection relays include those that monitor
parameters such as voltage , current , impedance , frequency,
power and power direction or a ratio of any of the above.

Typical mechanical protection relays include those that monitor parameters such as speed, temperature, pressure and flow among others.

PROTECTION FUNCTIONS The mechanical protection functions

1- Over-speed protection:
Over-speed protection consists of three magnetic pick-ups which provide electrical pulses to the Controllers which compare the pulse rate to a pre-set level.

2- Over-temperature protection:
The over temperature system protects the gas turbine against possible damage caused by over firing. It is a back-up system which operates only after failure of the speed and temperature override loops. *Protection function:
1-Inadvertent Energizing Protection 50/27:



2-under voltage Protection 27:



3-Overcurrent Protection 50/51:



4-Overvoltage Protection 59: The first one has two gas turbine each one produces (110MW) and another vapor turbine which produces (110-116 MW).

The second phase is the same as first phase expect the second vapor turbine is Japanese-made turbine. 
The third phase called (alostom gas) with (143MW).
A fourth phase has been recently installed this phase contain two gas turbine with a capacity of (143-147 MW) Alstom model as well. The SEPCO station work with 3-phases: Protecting the component of the power system especially the generator by protecting device depending on a plc program. It’s worth being mention that this innovation is the main objective of our project.

To make sure that protection device works properly through PLC circuit. 

To benefit from plc. Circuit in monitoring and controlling all the component of the generator device. OBJECTIVE: Final stage: the gas goes to generator and then to (C.B/SF6) and then to the main transformer which increase the voltage from (15KV/400KV) then to the main network and the secondary transformer (UAT) which decrease voltage from (15KV/6.6KV), then to a bus, and then to the other transformer decrease from (6.6KV/400V) and finally to the station to be used in different ways such as DC pump, lighting, protection device, control room. where there is a vaporization system , the burned gas is benefited from by taking it to a system called (HRSG) and then to vaporization unit , where the gas coming from the turbine to boiler which converted the water to gas on (500 c) temperature and (67 bar) pressure. the complex cycle: The gas goes to a turbine containing fourteen (14) burning chambers, where temperature reach approximately to (360 c) and in some cases might reach to (590 c) with pressure (9 bar). if the gas reach (612 c) temperature, then the gas automatically blocked from going through the pipes. the simple cycle: Every electricity generation station which depends on gas turbine has its own gas containers which supply the station with gas at (10 c) temperature. Raised up to (30-40 c), Then the gas goes to two valves combined to the turning gear, where one of them works as a controller (monitoring) to the other. INTRODUCTION It is worth mentioning that there many different gases used in the station such as:

Nitrogen: it’s used when (HRSG) is stopped to prevent staining and when cleaning filters.

Phosphate: is also used in (HRSG) to dispose Oxygen.

Carbon dioxide: is used in fire hazard cases. the purpose of AGC is :
to maintain power balance in the system
make sure that operating limits are not exceeded :
1- generator limits
2- tie-line limits
make sure that system frequency is constant Automatic Generation Control Automatic Load Frequency Control (ALFC)
Automatic Voltage Regulator ( AVR)
Automatic Generation Control (AGC) Power system control Stabilizer : to reduce the oscillation and the overshoot we put it to circuit

PID controller (proportional integrator and derivative) : the system has error so we reduce the error by PID
(PID = Gp +Gds + KI/S ) For improving properties of system Note: k and time constant for exciter is very small Value of K and time constants The main purpose of AVR:

maintain the reactive power balance by maintaining a constant voltage level Automatic voltage regulator We add a integrator circuit to the system to maintain the properties of the system and load frequency control Block diagram of AGC The main purpose of LFC is :

maintain power balance by a appropriate adjustment.

make sure that the system frequency is constant ( not change by the load). Automatic Load Frequency Control Pv: valve position of the turbine
Pm: mechanical power
Pl: load power
W: speed of the generator Block diagram of LFC sensor amplifier exciter generator Schematic diagram of a simplified AVR sensor amplifier exciter generator Block diagram of AVR Recommendations and finally alert system that sends a text message to the operator phone when ever there is an alert or an alarm in the system. hardware designed according to our
LADER circuit
and get all the alerts and actions
represented by any available criteria. test the PLC program on an actual
operating system. in case of faults and alerts, we have designed an alert system that keeps the operator updated with whats happening inside his system (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Why we have chosen PLC Advantages Flexibility
Space EfficientLow CostTesting
Visual observation Designing the PLC circuit went throw three main steps 1- Determining the control task. The control task specifies what needs to be done and is defined by those who are involved in the operation of the machine or process.2- Determining a control strategy, the sequence of processing steps that must occur within a program to produce the desired output control. This is also known as the development of an algorithm.3- drawing the circuit that will lead to the optimal solution taking in consideration all the control loops and the desired outputs depending on fetched data from censors and control equations results. The
PLC Program (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Test Modes Over speed test Conclusion We have managed to design a protection system in case of the other protection system didn't respond
such as relays; over current, under voltage relays, we have designed a very clear image that represent every part of the system, this will help the operator when tracking and detecting faults or alerts.
designing a gear box that separate between the gas turbine and the generator shaft. Normal speed test under speed test Thank You
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