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Geography Revision

This prezi is made by Eloise, Rhea, Meric, Sam and Jane
by

Eloise B-J

on 3 April 2014

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Transcript of Geography Revision

Ju
st

ke
ep
swi
mm
ing~
Biomes Map
$1.25
Monday, February 28, 2014
Volume 1
The

3

PILLARS

of

FOOD

SECURITY

Choropleth Mapping
DEFINITIONS
Biomes
Lighter

= Less

|
|
Darker

= More
Shows
more
/
less
of a topic
BOLTSS
B
order
O
rientation
L
egend
T
itle
S
cale
S
ource
Trend = Pattern
Anomalies
don't
follow the trend
USE
STATISTICS
AND
EXAMPLES
!
BREAKS AREN'T NECESSARILY EQUAL!
(Based on Patterns)
The 8 Biomes are:
By Jane
Colour-Coded-Map - Rhea
WORDS TO KNOW
Names, Lines of Latitude and life
Geography Revision
Q&A's
Tropical Rainforest, Tropical savannah,Desert, Chaparral, Grassland, Temperate deciduous forest, Temperate Boreal forest & Tundra

Tropical Rainforests
Choco
late

THE DARK
OF CHOCOLATE
SIDE
Deforestation
Biofuel

fuel received immediately from living matter.
Cutting down forests to gain extra land.
pillars of food security

- The latitude belt between 10 degrees and 30 degrees N and or S
- Grasslands with a few scattered trees
- Experience a wet and dry season
- Hot temperatures
- Annual rainfall is between 50 and 127 cm

More species of grazing mammals than any other biome
Utilisation (Pillar 3)
- Food security involves the cleanliness and utilisation of the food.

Tropical Savanna
Bean

to

Bar
Ivory Coast in Africa is a popular supplier of Cacao Beans, those brown things that make up your chocolate. What people don't know is that Cocoa suppliers are trafficking children across borders to work to harvest the beans. Not only is this an illegal act, but it is also disgustingly unethical and inhumane.
Access (Pillar 1)

Food security involves the physical and economical access to enough food for an active and healthy life.
Availability (Pillar 2)
– Food security involves the availability of good quality, nutritious food from local, regional, and international sources.
Malnutrition
Cacao beans go through a long process to become a chocolate bar.

- It is a nutritional imbalance commonly linked to a lack of nutrients required to maintain a healthy life. Malnutrition can involve undernourishment. (Lack of Food)
Subsistent Farming
Farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing.
Undernourished
- Typically found between 25 degrees and 40 degrees latitude
- Receives less than 25 cm of rain each year
- Temperatures typically range between 20 degrees Celsius and 25 degrees Celsius but some extreme deserts can reach temperatures higher than 38 degrees Celsius and lower than –15 degrees Celsius

- Meaning that you are lacking the necessary nutrients for a healthy diet.
Nourished
provide with the food or other substances necessary for growth, health, and good condition.
Less developed country
A country which isn’t very civilised socially wise, cleanliness wise, education wise and food wise.
developing country
First, the pods need to be harvested from the the cacao trees. These are hand picked, the mature ones being identified and hacked off from the trees. The pod is then broken open and the beans are extracted from the pods. After this, the beans need to be fermented, and are wrapped in banana leaves or placed in containers. The fermenting process should take around 8 days. The beans are now dried until there is only 6-7% moisture in the beans.

When dried, the beans get packaged and shipped off to manufacturing factories.
FIVE

DIFF
EREN
T COL
OURS
FIVE

DIFF
EREN
T COL
OURS
FIVE

DIFF
EREN
T COL
OURS
FIVE

DIFF
EREN
T COL
OURS
FIVE

DIFF
EREN
T COL
OURS

A developed country or "more developed country", is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less developed nations.
Poverty
the state of being inferior in quality or insufficient in amount.
zero population growth rate
the maintenance of a population at a constant level by limiting the number of live births to that needed to replace the existing population.
population density
- Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume.
food security
Desert
Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation.

genetically modified foods
food produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering
sustainability
Bean

to

Bar
the ability to be sustained, supported, upheld, or confirmed
- Found between 32 degrees and 40 degrees latitude on the west coast of continents
- Receives between 35 and 70 cm of rain, usually in the winter
- Extremely resistant to drought and weather events

Continued on...
g
r
e
e
n

r
e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
1940s - 1960s, increase in agriculture production worldwide, particularly in the developing countries, saving people from starvation, high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds etc.
Trend
a pattern
Anomaly/Anomalies

Doesn't follow the pattern
Use statistic + examples

Chaparral
Grassland
At the manufacturer, the beans are first cracked, a the hard shells of the beans contain 53% cocoa butter. Then, the beans are ground into a chocolate liquor. The liquor is then refined once more, to either make the particles smaller or to distribute cocoa butter evenly throughout. Other substances are added to give the chocolate flavour and texture, such as sugar, milk and vanilla. The liquor is then placed into the conch machine, which kneads it continuously, increasing the value of texture and flavour. After the 5-day conch machine process, the chocolate is tempered and molded to be distributed. It's also packaged... DUH.
- 37°21′N to 34°51′15'S latitude
- Because of the dry climate, trees are found only near water
sources such as streams
- Usually receives between 50 and 90 cm of rainfall each year
Summer temperatures can reach up to 38 degrees Celsius, and winter
temperatures can fall to –40 degrees Celsius
Hunger
• Hunger: the uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; craving appetite. Also the exhausted condition caused by want of food; the want or scarcity of food in a country or a strong desire or craving
• World Hunger: The want or scarcity of food in THE WORLD

Questions about
Chocolate?
- Typically found near the equator found near the equator (0° to 10°)
- Receives more than 200 cm of rain annually
- Temperatures typically fall between 20 degrees Celsius and 25 degrees Celsius for the entire year

As many as 50% of all the world’s animal species may be found here
Availability
,
Access
and
Utilisation
Temperate Deciduous Forest
How much does a Cocoa bean cost?
How many Cocoa beans are in a bar?
Availability includes:
Food production
Food Processing
Water management on farm
Trade-imports/exports
Stockpiling of food
Availability of food aid
$0.001
80-85 beans for an average 100g bar.
So, why does a chocolate bar cost so much?
- 23° North to 38° South latitude
- Moderate climate
- Most trees will lose their leaves in the winter
- Temperatures range between –30 degrees Celsius and 30 degrees Celsius
- Averages from 75 to 150 cm of precipitation
- Well developed understory

- Packaging
- Extra ingredients added
- Distribution/ Shipping
Temperate Boreal Forest

- Also known as Taiga
- Typically found between 45 degrees and 60 degrees North latitude
- Cold climate with summer rains
- Very few reptiles
- Limited understory
- Snow is primary form of precipitation( rains ,snows, hail -liquid from the sky)(40 – 100 cm annually)


Tundra
- Means treeless or marshy plain
- It is 60° to 70° latitude North
- Characterized by permafrost - permanently frozen soil starting as high as a few centimeters low the surface - which severely limits plant growth
- Winter temperatures average - 34 degrees Celsius while summer temperatures usually average below 10 degree Celsius
- Low precipitation ( 15- 25 cm per year ) but ground is usually wet because of low evaporation.
Food

Security
is the
availability
of food, ones
access
to it, and ones
utilisation
of it. All people at all times have sufficient safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs.
Access includes:
Marketing
Transport
Purchasing Power (having money to buy affordable food)
School meals & other social programmes providing access to nutritious food
Utilisation includes:
Good health status
Nutritious food choices
Food safety and quality
Clean water and proper sanitation
What Things Affect Food Security/Insecurity
Availability
Accessibility (can they get it)
Insects/vermin/animals
War
Climate
Natural Disasters
Resources - land, water, soil
Population
Education
Stability
Money
,
Food
,
Resources
and
Population
are
not evenly distributed
!!!!!!!
This makes it difficult to feed to worlds people
Biomes
generally travel along lines of latitude due to the
CLIMATE
found at that
LATITUDE
Chocolate:


Biomes
o What are biomes? Define this term.
o What influences the formation of biomes?
o List key information (climate, plants, animals etc) about the 8 biomes listed on My Subjects

Food Security:

Definitions:
Chocolate:
Biomes:
Food Security:

Definitions:
o Where is chocolate grown and in what biome?
o What are the benefits and disadvantages in relation to sourcing materials from underdeveloped countries for the manufacture of food and products?
o What are the benefits of child labour? What are the negatives of child labour?
o What is meant by fair trade? What are some initiatives in this area?
o Do you think that huge “mark ups” in relation to the cost of raw materials as opposed to the retail cost of items in supermarkets and shops are fair? Why? What are some of the reasons for these “mark-ups”?

Biomes/ Choropleth maps :
- Choropleth Maps
o Interpreting data from tables
o Selecting appropriate ranges for data representations
o Selecting appropriate colour schemes that communicate data easily
o Using BOLTSS to construct a map
o Analysing choropleth maps to describe geographic patterns within them and providing explanations in relation to patterns and anomalies within.

- Food Security
o What is food security? Define this term.
o What influences food security? What does food security depend on?
o What are the three pillars of food security?
o Is the world’s food supply evenly distributed? Why/ Why not
o What kind of things pose a threat to food security?
o What kind of things help improve food security?
o What can provide the most assistance to improving food security?
o Define terms that relate to food security like poverty, nourishment, dietary requirements etc.
o Describe the difference between commercial farming and subsistence farming.
o Describe what is happening with the world’s current population and how this can affect food security
o What kind of growth rate is the world currently experiencing? Will it ever stop growing? How? Are any places in the world not growing? Why?

Food Security, Undernourished, Green revolution, Anomaly, Biome, Over-population, trafficking, GMO/ GMF,Fair Trade, Per capita, Child labour, Zero growth rate,Land Locked, calories, sustainable, Continent/ countries,malnutrition, kilojoules, LEDC/ MEDC, Subsistence farming.

fill it out yourselves :)
By: Jane, Sam, Rhea, Meric & Eloise
Thanks for Watching.
Don't stress, you'll still do bad on your exam.

t(>.<t)

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Per Capita
per head (per person)
Land Locked
(of a country or region) almost or entirely surrounded by land.
Trafficking
REMEMBER TO...
Try to figure these out!




deal or trade in something illegal (such as people)
Full transcript